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英国留学经济学作业代写范文赏析

2017-03-27 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

这是一篇有关证券的经济学作业代写范文赏析,本文主要是以银行业的发展和股票市场的趋势阐述了经济的发展状况和特点。联合银行有限公司在巴基斯坦有大约半个世纪的历史,大型网络分支数超过1000,其中200是自动分行。


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


Allied Bank Ltd. has a history of about half the century in Pakistan with a mega network of branches that are numbered more than 1000, 200 out of which are automated branches, over 225 ALB. ATMs in 41 cities nation wide and network of over 12 banks on the meant ATM switch. Ten years after privation, ABL is now in spoliation stage designed to lock in the gains made in recent years and prepares the ground work for future growth.


The study examines the source and size of problems and recommendation to reduce it. For this purpose I have conducted interviews and literature survey in order to investigate the role of securities and organization effectiveness through important variables.


The main topic of the project is to conduct a survey on the securities and bad debts. The report is sequenced as firstly, I have defined a problem statement for the mentioned topic followed by theoretical frame work convening the relationship between depend variables i.e. securities can minimize bad debts and independent variables i.e. mortgage, pledge, hypothecation etc. related to the subject matter.


Together regarding the topic have prepared a questionnaire that has been filled by fifteen professionals of different banks and as well as of ABL belonging to different department working at different levels in the organization.


After completing literature survey and defining problem there is need to develop theoretical framework. In it I discovered that different variables can affect bad debts. I am considering all important variables that can affect company.


First we defined the loan and its types and then different types of securities which the customers give to the loan and its types. If the customers repay the on due date then these receivables become fruitful assets of the organization. If the customer does not return these loans on due date then bank declared these uncollectible receivables as bad debts. We discussed the reasons of these receivables, how securities play important role for bank to recover these receivables and how bad debts can be minimized. After making theoretical framework, we also conduct the testing which provides accurate and precise result of this research.


About the problem we obtained a lot of information from literature review, which contain information about securities, bad debts, and its recovery. I gave the recover ordinance that plays an important role in the recovery of the advances or loans i.e. ordinance of 1997 and 2005 that contains legal condition, rules and regulation.


After the analysis and findings conclusions is made followed by some recommendations. At least bibliography covers the list of references used for the completion of the research. Finally I have attached organization chart and some forms and applications about securities and its rule and regulation.RHCRBG Regional Head Customer Risk Banking Group RCRR Regional Credit Risk Rating RSAM Regional Special Assets Manager RCAD Regional Credit Admin Department CIBG Corporation investment Banking Group BOD Board of Director DF Demand Finance FAFB Finance Against Foreign Bill LMS Lien on Marketable Securities SECP Securities Exchange Commission Pakistan DSC Defence Saving Certificate


SCOPE OF THE ORGANIZATION


As far concern the scope of study I have visited ABL the Mall Lahore (Regional Office) and met with Mr. Zahid Ali (Provincial Manager). I am really thankful to him for his cooperation that really helped me in providing information regarding organization and it is actually implementation at ABL. It was also taken because of its convenience although country head office is in Karachi. The branch at which I visited is located in Lahore Cant. Its Chief Manager is Mr. M. Haseeb and Manager Operation is Kaleem Ahmed.


The branch is online branch and have the deposits of the about 750 million Rupees and about the 5000 account holders. ATM is also installed in this branch. This branch came into existence in 1962 and is one of the old branches. It has total staff of 16 people, which includes 2 cashier and 2 security guards and one messengers.


OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT


The main objective of my project is to apply my concept and knowledge in practical scenario. And how the organization is getting competitive advantages through securities.


The purpose is to prove that how different securities contribute in implementing bad debts minimize within the organization. This research would produce affective result, that's why we can say that research generates alternative result to solve problems.


INTRODUCTION TO THE BANKING (PAKISTAN)


ORIGION OF THE WORD BANK


There are many definitions to the word “Bank” even the standard encyclopedia and law books find it difficult to state exactly what a bank is. There have been many attempts by different writers to explain the exact significance of the term “Bank”. Here some of the definitions are quoted as follows:-


According to the Banking Companies Ordinance 1962


Section 5 (b) defines:

According to Pakistani banking law sec 5(b) banker means a person transacting the business accepting deposits and extend loan to the general public or invest it somewhere by itself it provide the facility of withdrawals of deposits by cheques drafts, order of otherwise, and include any post office saving banks.


According to Crowther

Bank is a dealer of debt, his own and of other people.


According to Gilbert

A bank is a dealer in capital or dealer in money. He is an intermediary party between the borrowers and lenders.


According to Samulelson

“The modern banker is primarily a dealer in credit”. Thus the comprehensive definition of the bank. A bank is financial institution, which deals with money and credit. It accepts deposits from individuals, firs and companies at a low rate of interest and gives at a higher rate of interest and gives at a higher rate of interest to those who need them. The difference between the terms at which it borrows and those at which it lends from the source of it profit. A bank, thus, is a profit earning institution.


Importance of Banking

Banks play very important role in the economic life of a nation. The growth of economy is dependent upon the soundness of its banking system. Although banks do not create new wealth but borrow, exchange and consume. These make generation of wealth. In this way they become most effective partners in the development of that country.


To encourage the habit of saving and to mobilize these savings is its basic purpose. Banks deposit surplus from the public and then advances these surpluses in the form of loans to the industrials, agriculturists, businessmen, and unemployed people under different schemes so that they set up their own business thus banks help in capital formation.


If there are no banks, ten there would e concentration of wealth in few hands and great portion of wealth of a country would be idle in the fewer developing countries rate of saving is very low and due to this, rate of investment and rate of growth is also very low. We can bank just like heart. In the economic structure and capital provided by it is like blood in it. As long as the blood is in circulation, the organs will remain sound the healthy. If the blood were not provided to any organ the organ would become useless. So, if finance is not provided to agriculture sector or top industrial sector it will be destroyed.


Loan facility provided by bank works as an incentive to the producer to increase production. Banks provide transfer of payment facility, which is cheaper, quicker, and safe. Many difficulties in the international payment have been over come and volume of transaction has been increased. These facilities are very much helpful for the development of trade and commerce.


Evolution in Indo-Pak Subcontinent

The Indian Society was quite familiar with the banking, right from the beginning. There is also sufficient evidence to show that fifth country people were accustomed to use hounds a credit investment. Loans were given top the people against personal and other securities such as ornaments, goods and other immovable properties.


Commercial Banking in Pakistan

It was very difficult for Pakistan to establish its own baking system-immediately after independence with out resources. Following the announcement of the partition plan in June 1947 there was a haste movement on the part of the banks to transfer their funds and accounts across their orders. The banks having their registered offices in Pakistan were transferred to India. In an effort to bring about collapse of the new state by the persecuting and international policy of with drawl, the Indian bank offices closed quickly. Those banks, which stayed, were considering the winding up of their business. By the 30th June 1948 the number of scheduled banks in Pakistan declined from mere scratch.Today there are more than 9137 branches of commercial banks along with an established network of supplementary financial institution. All this development in the banking sector is the result of untiring efforts of 4 decades.


VARIOUS PHASES OF BANKING SECTOR IN PAKISTAN


Broadly speaking we can divide the development of commercial banking into four phases.

PHASE-1 1947-74 Establishment of commercial banking system

PHASE-2 1974-1979 Nationalization of banks

PHASE-3 1979-91 Islam station process

PHASE-4 1991-2005 Deregulation process

FIRST PHASE (1947-74)


SETUP OF COMMERCIAL BANKING SYSTEM


This was the first phase of the development of Pakistan Commercial Banking system, which consists of the circumstances under which the development of the banking was started in the country.


INITIAL POSITION OF BANKING IN PAKISTAN


There were 19 known Indians foreign Banks in Pakistan at the time of Independence, which the status of small branch networks, whose policies and operations their head offices abroad controlled. These banks were solely engaged in exports of crops from Pakistan. There were only two Banks in Pakistan at the time of partition, Habib Bank, which had transferred its Head office from Bombay to Karachi after the announcement of the partition, and Australian Bank, which has been working in Pakistani territories prior to June 1947. The Government of Pakistan tried hard to eliminate the Banking crises.


The Imperial Bank of India closed down most of its offices in Pakistan, which had been working, as the agent of Reserve Bank of India was not willing to purchase even token amounts of the Pakistan.


Securities on the plea that these securities were not marketable. The Reserve Bank of India was hardly of any help. It refused to help the Government of Pakistan with advance arguments ad-hoc securities t enable them to make essential disbursements such as salaries and other obligations to add to the difficulties.


The Indian Government withheld Pakistan shares of 750 million in cash balance held by at the time of independence. The for going developments clearly brought home the urgency of assuming the control and currency in Pakistan and brought to the fore the need to setup a central banking institution to take the place of reserve bank of India. Therefore, it was agreed between the government of India and Pakistan to authority of Pakistan from 30th September 1947 to 30th June 1948.


In order to make necessary agreement of establishment of the central bank of Pakistan a committee was appointed to recommend the necessary steps. Consequently the Governor of Pakistan and father of the nation Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah inaugurated the state Bank of Pakistan of 1st July 1948. After the SBP order was promulgated on 12th May 1948.


When it assumed full control of banking and currency in Pakistan the first important task before the SBP was to issue of currency notes and withdrawal of reserve bank of India, which had been in circulating in Pakistan so for.

Second Phase (1974-79)


NATIONALIZATION OF BANKS


The banking reforms turned out to the transitional and temporary step and hardly after 18 months have the government nationalized the banking system. Thus through the nationalization bank act 1974, SBP and all commercial banks incorporated in Pakistan and carrying on business in or out side of the country were brought under the government ownership with effect from January 1974. The ownership and management of all Pakistan banks stood transferred and rested in the federal government. The shareholders were provided compensation was equal to the brake up value of the shares in case of commercial banks. For the SBP shares the amount of compensation was estimate on the basis of average of the clearing quotations during the 6 working days preceding nationalization. The chairman, director and chief executive of various banks were removed from their offices other than those appointed by the federal government and the state bank. The central board of banks, managing comities and similar other bodies were dissolved. A Pakistani banking council was established for nationalized commercial banks to co-ordinate their activities.


As a result of merger of banks the following 5 major banking companies were formed.

1. National bank of Pakistan

2. Habib Bank Ltd.

3. United Bank Ltd.

4. Muslim commercial Bank Ltd.

5. Allied Bank of Pakistan


Causes of Nationalization


The nationalization of banks may be justified on the following grounds.

1. Large business and industrial houses dominate the lending policies of commercial banks; this brought forward the problem of concentration wealth.

2. Commercial banking operations were guided by profit motives and as a result the backward regions and the small entrepreneurs were never been their favourite customers.

3. The operation of banks, unlike after business, have direct implication on the entire national economy. For the instance if the banks raise the cost of their credit, the cost of every thing may go up.

4. Unhealthy complications among banks can lead to financial and economic problems.

5. The flow of bank advances towards national priority sector in general is not forthcoming because private banks ate not profit oriented.


RESULT OF NATIONALIZATION


Although there are doubts about the positive result of the nationalization but we can say that the nationalization of the banks provided efficient professional management to expand making services in every nook and corner of the country. Banks laid full emphasis on their lending policies on priority sector and national building projects, which discouraged non productive and un-healthy activities like speculation and hording; there was also a recorded increase in the foreign branches of Pakistan banks.


The growth of Pakistani banking system was significant. The banking facilities expanded in the rural area. The bank credit increased sharply especiallyin the public sector. A part from this expansion the banking systems activity seeking to gain credit targets laid down by national credit consultative council and to confirm to the priorities over the year to enlarge the flow of small banker and agriculturist as well as for exports.


Third Phase (1979-91)


introduction of islamic banking


In 1977 the Bhutto Government was toppled. The martial law government planned to reform the banking sector in a novel way. The over all policy was to Islamise the economy and the baking system, being based on interest was an important target of the new policy. The most preferred from of the Islamic bank financing profit and loss sharing would receive banks to receive deposit without guaranteeing return.


The Islamic bank has to acquire a high degree of confidence of the save of make him deposit his money with them not even return of the principal amount if guaranteed. The Islamic bank cannot finance the project of an investor merely on the furnishing of collateral. The bank will have to be a partner in the project. This will require to careful security of the project and the assessment of risk involved because profits are the function of the amount of risk involved because the profits are the function of the amount of the risk in the project.


FOURTH PHASE (1991-2005)


PRIVITIAIZATION AND DEGREGULATION


The government headed by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was not fully satisfied with the performance of nationalized. The areas, which were severely criticized, were the following standard of the banking servicesd common red tapes. There were complains about the services as delay in home remittances, dispatch of cheques, drafts, inefficient counter services, bad debts of the bank etc. were on sector application of privatization of other banks namely UBL and HBL were also invited but the bidding response was quite poor. Legislation was elected to permit the private sector for the grants of the commercial banks licenses by SBP, out of these nine new banks have since been incorporated. Till March 1994 there were 20 domestic scheduled banks with 9825 branches and 21 foreign banks 66 branches in operation in the country. Overall investment of the scheduled banks in the current year rose to 76.7%. At present there are 24 domestic scheduled 8137 branches and 19 foreign banks with 71 branches are in operation in the country. Total assets of the domestic schedule banks amounting to Rs. 1536.73 billion on 30th March, 2004. Overall investment of the domestic scheduled banks in the current year declined by 80% over the same period last year.


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