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Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper--英国论文代写范文精选

2016-01-18 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

这篇是英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文,Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper

Leonardo da Vinci's large mural of The Last Supper is one of the most familiar images in Western art, even though it has deteriorated to the point where its original brilliance can only be guessed at. The mural has largely been known through its repainted versions, or through touched-up copies that attempt to give some idea of what the original might have looked like. But, the various versions of the picture do little to convey how revolutionary Leonardo's whole conception was. At Milan, Leonardo created a work that treated a familiar subject, but was a complete departure from the usual in terms of composition, selection of a Biblical text, iconography, use of perspective, and fresco technique.

Leonardo arrived in Milan in the early 1480s, and made one of the longest stays of his career there--nearly twenty years. He went to Milan to work for the controversial Sforza family, dukes of Milan, in a number of different capacities: designer, engineer, painter, sculptor, and producer of theatrical entertainments and spectacles. The Last Supper was his most important painting commission in that city. The mural, which measures 13'10" x 29'7.5", was painted in the refectory of the ducal church of Santa Maria della Grazie in the years 1495-1498.

Leonardo was an inventor and an innovator, always looking for a better way to do things. In addition, he was, one of the most influential painters of the High Renaissance. The key to understanding the revolutionary qualities of The Last Supper lies in the fact that, in the last quarter of the fifteenth century, Leonardo was engaged in creating an entirely new style of painting. He was involved in working out a solution to a problem that had confronted Florentine painters during the preceding century: the opposition "between a view which took the first function of art to be that of rationally and objectively describing physical reality and one that held it to be the expression of spiritual--non-rational and subjective--values" (Freedberg 23).

Various compromises had been worked out between these two positions. But, Leonardo wanted a true blending, rather than a compromise. He did not seek to replicate reality for its own sake, nor did he choose to neglect the appearance of the real world. Instead, Leonardo believed that the painter could show "that truth which intellect may find behind the facade of visible experience" (Freedberg 20). The painter's various tools, such as perspective or the rendering of light on surfaces, were to be used to create an overall harmony that took from the real world in order to describe the ideal. Leonardo had begun the work of creating this new style in his Adoration of the Magi (1481), which he left behind, unfinished, in Florence, when he departed for Milan. His earlier paintings in Milan show the continued development of the style, but his Last Supper was to be its major statement (Freedberg 20).

He began conventionally enough. Refectories, the dining halls of the friars or monks who ran large churches, were traditionally decorated with portrayals of the Last Supper, or some other subject associated with dining. These paintings must have been considered important commissions, since "their execution was often entrusted to the most popular and well-known artists of the times" (Cole 45). The opposite wall usually featured a fresco of the Crucifixion--signifying the connection between the last supper, at which the sacrament of the Eucharist was instituted, and the sacrifice on the Cross, which was recreated in the sacrament. At Milan, the opposing wall featured a Crucifixion (1495) by Donato Montorfano (Pedretti 75). Leonardo's drawings show that he began with the conventional seating arrangement and the depiction of the usual moments from the New Testament (Hartt 399). But, he soon changed this, and went for something new.

Unfortunately, he also wanted something new in terms of technique--and this has made it difficult to see everything else he seems to have accomplished in this work. Leonardo was a painter who could spend enormous amounts of time staring at, and thinking about his works. There are even mentions in the literature of the duke trying to get him to hurry with this particular commission (Pedretti 75). In addition, Leonardo's primary concern in painting was the creation of a uniform, overall effect--a vital element of his creation of a harmonious ideal. But, fresco painting had to be done in clumsy stages. The wet plaster had to be applied only to the section the painter would be able to finish in one sitting. The paint was applied to, and absorbed by, the wet plaster, and creating smooth, invisible joins between sections was a difficult problem. But for Leonardo, who wanted carefully controlled tone and light to unify his composition, it was nearly impossible. Therefore, he attempted to produce a new type of fresco, and painted directly on the dry plaster with a special oil tempera which, he was convinced, would meet the special needs of painting on plaster. But, by 1517, humidity and changing temperatures began to make the paint peel, and, within only twenty years, had become almost indecipherable.

In the dramatic moment that Leonardo presented, Jesus sits with his hands outstretched, as if in resignation. He is the focal point of the composition. The twelve apostles are arranged in four groups of three, two on either side of Christ. Their faces express surprise, and horror at the thought that one of them could be guilty of anything so terrible. This allows Leonardo to present a number of figures, who are, basically, arranged in a long row, in a great variety of positions, expressing shock, surprise, protest, and curiosity. But, among the groups, one includes Peter, John and Judas. Christ is lit from in front and from behind, by the framing of his head against the center window, and all the disciples are also well lit. The single exception is Judas. It was traditional to present Judas on the other side of the table from everyone else, and as "dark-haired and bearded, his expression sly" (Hall 190). But, Leonardo wished to present a more natural version of the story in which Judas truly would not stand out to the eyes of his fellow disciples. Therefore, Judas is integrated into the group. But, he is also placed with the other two most readily identified figures. He sits, shadowed, the only disciple not in the light, by Peter and John. Judas displays his accepted appearance. And, Peter displays his well-known characteristics of gray hair which is "generally short and curly and a short usually curly beard," while John is identifiable because he is usually shown "next to Christ," and depicted as "young, clean-shaven, with long hair and sometimes rather effeminate features" (Hall 190).

Because the historical event serves as a warning to those who view it, it is set in a world that is both realistic in its details, and ideal in its totality. Leonardo was creating a vision of one of a New Testament drama that had great personal significance for the viewers. But the event is played out on a scale, and in a setting that resembles the real world, but actually represents an ideal. The control of light seems to have been very carefully organized as well, and the perspective of the room is perfect. But, just as the light that shines on the faces of the disciples cannot have any origin within the picture, so the perspective is not what spectators were used to. The fifteenth century's tradition of illusionistic perspective "decreed that represented space must be an inward extension of the room in which the spectator stands" (Hartt 401). However, in the case of The Last Supper, "there is no place in the refectory that a spectator can take in order to experience the painted space" in this way (Pedretti 70). The room created by Leonardo, like the people and objects in it, is in a "region of superior existence" and the table's edge "makes a boundary between our world and the idea" (Freedberg 24). Thus, though Leonardo failed to change fresco painting to suit his own aims, the wreck of The Last Supper demonstrates how revolutionary the painting was.


Cole, Bruce. The Renaissance Artist at Work: From Pisano to Titian London: John Murray, 1983.

Freedberg, S. J. Painting in Italy: 1500-1600 3d ed. New Haven: Yale UP, 1993.

Hall, James. Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art Rev ed. New York: Harper and Row-Icon, 1979.

Hartt, Frederick. Italian Renaissance Art Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; New York: Abrams, 1975.

Pedretti, Carlo. Leonardo: A Study in Chronology and Style. [1973]. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich-Johnson Reprint, 1982.

达芬奇的大型壁画“最后的晚餐”是一个在西方艺术中最熟悉的图像,即使它已经恶化的地步只能猜测,在其原有的光彩。壁画已在很大程度上被称为通过粉刷版本,或通过触摸的备份副本,试图给一些想法,原来是什么,有可能看起来像。但是,各种不同版本的图片做一点传达如何革命莱昂纳多的整个概念。在米兰,莱昂纳多创建工作,对待熟悉的题材,但偏离通常是一个完整的组成,甄选了圣经的文字,意象,使用的角度来看,和壁画技术方面。莱昂纳多抵达米兰在1480年代初期,有他的职业生涯最长的住宿 - 近二十年。他去米兰的争议,米兰公爵斯福尔扎家族,在许多不同的能力:设计师,工程师,画家,雕塑家,文艺娱乐及眼镜生产商。在这个城市, “最后的晚餐”是他最重要的绘画佣金。壁画,措施13'10 “X 29'7 .5 ” ,涂在公爵的教堂圣母GRAZIE在1495-1498年间食堂。莱昂纳多是一个发明家和创新者,一直在寻找一种更好的方式做的事情。此外,他是高文艺复兴时期最有影响力的画家之一。事实证明,在15世纪的最后一个季度,莱昂纳多从事创建一个全新的绘画风格的关键在于理解“最后的晚餐”的革命本色。他曾参与了解决方案已经面临一个问题,就是在过去的一个世纪的佛罗伦萨画家:反对派“之间的观点是理性和客观地描述物理现实和一个举行了艺术的第一个函数是表达精神 - 非理性的和主观的 - 值“ ( Freedberg 23 ) 。已经制定了这两个位置之间的各种妥协。但是,莱昂纳多想要一个真正的融合,而不是一种妥协。他没有寻找复制现实,为了自身的利益,他也没有选择,忽视对现实世界的外观。相反,莱昂纳多认为,画家可以显示“可见经验”背后的门面( Freedberg 20 )智力可能会发现真理。画家的各种工具,如透视或表面上的光的渲染,被用来创建了从现实世界中,为了描述的理想的整体和谐。莱昂纳多已经开始创造这个新的风格,他崇拜的贤士(1481) ,这是他留下的,未完成的,在佛罗伦萨,当他离开米兰的工作。他的早期画作在米兰的风格,表现的持续发展,但他最后的晚餐是其重要声明( Freedberg 20 ) 。他开始常规不够。食堂,食堂谁跑了大教会的修士或僧人,装饰有传统的描绘“最后的晚餐” ,或其他一些与餐饮相关的主题。这些画必须被视为重要的委员会,因为“他们的执行往往委托最受欢迎和最知名的艺术家的时代” (科尔45 ) 。对面的墙壁通常包括壁画的受难 - 标志着最后的晚餐之间的连接,在圣体圣事被提起,在十字架上的牺牲,这是重新在圣。在米兰,相对壁特色受难日(1495 ) :多纳托蒙托尔法诺(佩德雷蒂75 ) 。莱昂纳多的图纸显示,他开始与传统的座位安排和描绘新约(哈特399 )平常时刻。但是,他的到来改变了这一点,新的东西去。不幸的是,他还希望在技术方面新的东西 - 这已经很难看到一切,他似乎已经完成了这项工作。莱昂纳多是一位画家,他们可以花大量的时间在盯着,想着他的作品。甚至有公爵试图让他赶紧用这个特殊的佣金(佩德雷蒂75 )在文献中提到。此外,莱昂纳多在绘画的主要关注是建立一个统一的,整体的效果 - 他创造了一个和谐的理想的一个重要元素。但是,壁画做笨拙的阶段。湿石膏只适用于部分画家将能够在一个会议结束。油漆和吸收,湿石膏,创建平滑的,无形之间的连接部分是一个棘手的问题。但是,对于莱昂纳多,谁想要仔细控制音色和光他的作文统一起来,这是几乎是不可能的。因此,他试图生产一种新型的壁画,直接涂在干燥具有特殊的油温,他确信,满足特殊需要画石膏的石膏。但是, 1517年,湿度和温度变化的开始,使油漆剥落, ,只有20年之内,已成为几乎是无法分辨的。戏剧性的时刻,莱昂纳多提出,耶稣坐在他伸出双手,仿佛在辞职。他是构图的焦点。三,四组被安排在两侧的基督十二使徒。他们的脸表示惊讶和恐怖的思想,其中之一可能是犯了这么可怕的东西。这让莱昂纳多提出了一些数字,谁,基本上安排在一长排,在一个伟大的各种姿势,表达震撼,惊喜,抗议和好奇心。但是,各组,包括彼得,约翰和犹大。基督被点亮,从前面和后面,他的头取景对中心窗口,所有的弟子也亮起。唯一的例外是犹大。这是传统的表的另一边从别人提出犹大,并作为“黑头发,胡子拉碴,他的表情狡黠”( 190号展馆) 。但是,莱昂纳多希望提出一个更自然的故事版本,其中犹大真正会受不了他的同胞弟子眼中的。因此,犹大被整合成团。但是,他也放在与其他两个最容易确定的数字。他坐镇,阴影,唯一的弟子,在灯光下,彼得和约翰。犹大显示他接受的外观。彼得显示他著名的特点,花白的头发,这是“短曲和通常短,卷曲的胡须”,而约翰是可识别的,因为他通常是显示“旁边的基督”,并描绘为“年轻,干净剃光长发,有时相当柔弱的功能“ (霍尔190 ) 。因为作为一个警告那些谁认为它的历史事件,它是设置在一个世界,既现实,在其详细信息,并在其整体的理想选择。莱昂纳多新约的戏剧观众有巨大的个人意义之一是建立一个远景。但该事件播放的规模,并在设置类似于现实世界中,但实际上代表一个理想的。光的控制似乎一直很小心,以及组织,和房间是完美的角度。但是,就像光,照在脸上的弟子,可以没有任何来源内的图片,这样的角度看是没有什么观众被用来。 15世纪的传统幻觉透视“下旨代表性的空间必须是一个向内延伸,观众席上的房间内” (哈特401 ) 。然而,在“最后的晚餐”的情况下, “有没有一个地方,观众可以采取以体验手绘空间”这种方式(佩德雷蒂70 )在食堂。达芬奇创建的房间,喜欢的人及其中的对象,是在一个“地区优越的存在” ,并表的边缘“ ,使我们的世界之间的界限和理念” ( Freedberg 24 ) 。因此,虽然莱昂纳多没有改变壁画,以满足自己的目标, “最后的晚餐”的残骸表明这幅画革命。引用科尔,布鲁斯。文艺复兴时期的艺术家工作:从皮萨诺提香伦敦:约翰·默里,1983 。Freedberg , SJ绘画在意大利1500-1600 3D版。纽黑文:耶鲁UP ,1993 。霍尔,詹姆斯。在艺术修订版的主题和符号字典。纽约:哈珀和行图标,1979。哈特,弗雷德里克。意大利文艺复兴艺术州Englewood Cliffs , NJ :普伦蒂斯 - 霍尔;纽约:艾布拉姆斯,1975年。佩德雷蒂,卡罗。莱昂纳多:一项研究在年表和样式。 [1973] 。纽约:夏布雷斯Jovanovich出版社 - 约翰逊重印,1982年。


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