欢迎来到51Due,请先 | 注册
关注我们: 51due论文代写二维码 51due论文代写平台微博
英国论文代写,英国essay代写知名品牌微信

更多范文

为您解决留学中生活、学习、工作的困难、疑惑
释放自我

关于棕色隐形蜘蛛的识别分析--51Due英国论文代写网范文精选

2016-03-08 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51due作为英国最大的论文代写网,在论文写作方面积累了大量的经验,下面请看精选assignment代写范文:”关于棕色隐形蜘蛛的识别分析“。这篇论文向我们介绍了什么是棕色隐形蜘蛛,从而引出了棕色隐形蜘蛛的有毒性且不容易发现,所以本文的重点是教人们怎样识别棕色隐形蜘蛛。其实,人们可以很容易地学会如何识别棕色隐形蜘蛛,不用一分钟时间的训练,通过判断蜘蛛有没有着色模式和他们的腿的腹部覆盖着细毛,但缺乏增厚刺,如果都具备的话,那就是棕色隐形蜘蛛。
General information regarding recluse spider life history characteristics has been published.[7-9] Recluse spiders, as their names imply, are rather secretive in their habits. They are nocturnal spiders that actively attack prey and subdue it with venom. Although they don't use silk for prey capture, they do use it to line their diurnal refugia. In nature they are found under rocks and in crevices and are considered "synanthropic" meaning their populations benefit when associated with humans. When a habitat is conducive to recluses, dense populations are found. Part of the reason is that recluses are highly tolerant of conspecifics; they are one of the few spiders that can be reared communally in a jar, given that there is sufficient prey availability. As an example of their abundance, in Missouri, the author and a colleague collected 40 brown recluses in a barn within 75 minutes. In Kansas, the brown recluse is an extremely common house spider.[10] Finally, recluses have a prevalence for hiding in boxes which allows them to be transported out of their range by commerce or residential relocation. Despite this opportunity for range expansion, remarkably few verified populations have established outside the shaded area in the map shown. When they do establish, it typically is in the basement of a building and there is little expansion beyond the structure unless connected to other structures by underground pipes or passageways.

Despite their reclusive habits, they do occasionally bite humans. Recluses typically bite when they are trapped between flesh and another surface, as when a sleeping human rolls over on a prowling spider, or when putting on clothing or shoes containing spiders. Ways to reduce bite risk from recluse spiders include: 1) keep beds away from walls; remove bed skirts and items under the bed so that the only pathway to the bed is up the legs. 2) Keep clothing off the floor; if it is on the floor, shake it vigorously before dressing. 3) Store all intermittantly used items such as gardening clothing, baseball mitts or roller skates in spider-proof boxes or bags.
The common name "brown recluse" refers specifically to one species of spider that lives in the south central Midwest U.S. (Map). It may be found in less dense populations around the margins of the shaded area on the map. Many reports, both media and medical, forebodingly state that the brown recluse can be transported outside its range. Although this is true, it is then erroneously projected that one spider is the "tip of the iceberg" for rampant populations. In fact, verified finds of brown recluses outside of its range are rare and almost every collection is that of a single itinerant spider. Subsequent searching of the vicinity typically results in no additional recluses. The undeserved infamy that this spider has achieved outside of its range is nothing short of mind boggling. The few known instances of any recluse spider population establishing in non-native habitats typically are limited to circumscribed areas, with only rare reports of expansion from its locale.

Recluse Spider Populations The darkly shaded area of the map shows the distribution of the brown recluse spider (modified from the distribution map of Gertsch and Ennik, 1983). Additional limited populations may be found around the margins of the shaded area. The other 10 species of native recluse spiders are found in the striped area in the southwestern U.S.
The name "brown recluse" spider correctly refers only to the midwest species; additional species are known by common names such as the desert recluse, the Arizona recluse, etc. Unfortunately, non-arachnologists incorrectly lump them all under the "brown recluse" moniker. This is a potentially incorrect extrapolation because only the brown recluse has been intensively studied. All recluse species are probably capable of inflicting necrotizing bites, however, there may be behavioral and toxicological differences among the various species.

Two other spiders that have the potential to produce necrotizing wounds, though much less well-documented than the brown recluse, are the hobo spider and the yellow sac spider. The hobo spider (Tegenaria agrestis) may be found in the Pacific Northwest as far east as Montana and south into Oregon and Utah. The two yellow sac species (Cheiracanthium spp.) are found all over the United States, but probably only produce minor necrotic wounds.

Identifying the Brown Recluse Spider
One can readily learn how to identify recluse spiders with less than a minute's training. Whereas most U.S. spiders have 8 eyes, typically arranged in 2 rows of 4, the recluse spiders have 6 eyes arranged in pairs (dyads) with one anterior dyad and 2 lateral dyads (Fig. 1). All 13 species of U.S. recluses (11 native, 2 non-native) share the same eye pattern. In many publications, the violin pattern on the cephalothorax (the first body part to which the legs attach) is mentioned as a diagnostic characteristic (Fig 2). Although it is quite consistent in adult brown recluses (although it can fade in preserved specimens), many western U.S. recluse species and some young brown recluses have virtually no contrasting pigmentation in the violin region (Fig. 3, 4). In addition, recluse spiders have abdomens that are devoid of coloration pattern and their legs are covered with fine hairs but lack thickened spines.

Natural History
General information regarding recluse spider life history characteristics has been published.[7-9] Recluse spiders, as their names imply, are rather secretive in their habits. They are nocturnal spiders that actively attack prey and subdue it with venom. Although they don't use silk for prey capture, they do use it to line their diurnal refugia. In nature they are found under rocks and in crevices and are considered "synanthropic" meaning their populations benefit when associated with humans. When a habitat is conducive to recluses, dense populations are found. Part of the reason is that recluses are highly tolerant of conspecifics; they are one of the few spiders that can be reared communally in a jar, given that there is sufficient prey availability. As an example of their abundance, in Missouri, the author and a colleague collected 40 brown recluses in a barn within 75 minutes. In Kansas, the brown recluse is an extremely common house spider.[10] Finally, recluses have a prevalence for hiding in boxes which allows them to be transported out of their range by commerce or residential relocation. Despite this opportunity for range expansion, remarkably few verified populations have established outside the shaded area in the map shown. When they do establish, it typically is in the basement of a building and there is little expansion beyond the structure unless connected to other structures by underground pipes or passageways.

Despite their reclusive habits, they do occasionally bite humans. Recluses typically bite when they are trapped between flesh and another surface, as when a sleeping human rolls over on a prowling spider, or when putting on clothing or shoes containing spiders. Ways to reduce bite risk from recluse spiders include: 1) keep beds away from walls; remove bed skirts and items under the bed so that the only pathway to the bed is up the legs. 2) Keep clothing off the floor; if it is on the floor, shake it vigorously before dressing. 3) Store all intermittantly used items such as gardening clothing, baseball mitts or roller skates in spider-proof boxes or bags.

The common name "brown recluse" refers specifically to one species of spider that lives in the south central Midwest U.S. (Map). It may be found in less dense populations around the margins of the shaded area on the map. Many reports, both media and medical, forebodingly state that the brown recluse can be transported outside its range. Although this is true, it is then erroneously projected that one spider is the "tip of the iceberg" for rampant populations. In fact, verified finds of brown recluses outside of its range are rare and almost every collection is that of a single itinerant spider. Subsequent searching of the vicinity typically results in no additional recluses. The undeserved infamy that this spider has achieved outside of its range is nothing short of mind boggling. The few known instances of any recluse spider population establishing in non-native habitats typically are limited to circumscribed areas, with only rare reports of expansion from its locale.

Recluse Spider Populations The darkly shaded area of the map shows the distribution of the brown recluse spider (modified from the distribution map of Gertsch and Ennik, 1983). Additional limited populations may be found around the margins of the shaded area. The other 10 species of native recluse spiders are found in the striped area in the southwestern U.S.

The name "brown recluse" spider correctly refers only to the midwest species; additional species are known by common names such as the desert recluse, the Arizona recluse, etc. Unfortunately, non-arachnologists incorrectly lump them all under the "brown recluse" moniker. This is a potentially incorrect extrapolation because only the brown recluse has been intensively studied. All recluse species are probably capable of inflicting necrotizing bites, however, there may be behavioral and toxicological differences among the various species.

Two other spiders that have the potential to produce necrotizing wounds, though much less well-documented than the brown recluse, are the hobo spider and the yellow sac spider. The hobo spider (Tegenaria agrestis) may be found in the Pacific Northwest as far east as Montana and south into Oregon and Utah. The two yellow sac species (Cheiracanthium spp.) are found all over the United States, but probably only produce minor necrotic wounds.

Identifying the Brown Recluse Spider
One can readily learn how to identify recluse spiders with less than a minute's training. Whereas most U.S. spiders have 8 eyes, typically arranged in 2 rows of 4, the recluse spiders have 6 eyes arranged in pairs (dyads) with one anterior dyad and 2 lateral dyads (Fig. 1). All 13 species of U.S. recluses (11 native, 2 non-native) share the same eye pattern.

In many publications, the violin pattern on the cephalothorax (the first body part to which the legs attach) is mentioned as a diagnostic characteristic (Fig 2). Although it is quite consistent in adult brown recluses (although it can fade in preserved specimens), many western U.S. recluse species and some young brown recluses have virtually no contrasting pigmentation in the violin region (Fig. 3, 4). In addition, recluse spiders have abdomens that are devoid of coloration pattern and their legs are covered with fine hairs but lack thickened spines.

Other brown arachnids
Figure 11
The marbled cellar spider, Holocnemus pluchei, is repeatedly confused by the public as a brown recluse despite the fact that the brown markings are on the ventral surface of the body. (photo by R. Vetter ©)

Fearing that they might have recluse spiders, the public has brought in many other brown, eight-eyed spiders in addition to non-spider arachnids such as solpugids and daddy-long legs. The latter is differentiated from spiders in that it has one major body part as opposed to two, lacks venom glands, does not make silk and therefore, is not found in webs except as spider prey. Unfortunately, the urge to misidentify common, virtually harmless spiders as brown recluses is not restricted to the lay community.

Although bites from the brown recluse and other recluse spiders can be a source of significant morbidity, diagnoses implicating these spiders as the culprits should be restricted to those regions of the country that support populations of the spiders. On a broader scale, spider bites in general are overdiagnosed. [1] A call for more judicious evaluation has been made several times.[1-3, 11,12] Spider bites are the result of an incidental and accidental encounter between arachnid and human. In areas outside the range of recluse spiders, it has been suggested that physicians consider more strongly as differential diagnoses, many of those arthropods (fleas, hard ticks, soft ticks, mites, bedbugs, assassin bugs, etc.) that purposely seek out humans for their blood meals rather than the accidental spider encounter.[1] Wounds from these animals could stem from reactions to the animal's saliva, to toxins or to bacteria introduced while feeding. Stringent guidelines have been put forth in attempt to stem the overdiagnosis of spider bites.[1,2,12] Verified spider bites require the presence or sighting of a spider in the act of biting. In the absense of this, a necrotizing wound should be evaluated thoroughly for infectious, thrombotic, and vasculitic causes. Without verification, the diagnosis of necrotizing spider bite should be one of exclusion.

更多英国论文代写范文欢迎访问我们主页 www.51due.net 当然有留学生作业代写,essay代写,paper代写,assignment代写需求可以和我们24小时在线客服 QQ:800020041 联系交流

51Due网站原创范文除特殊说明外一切图文著作权归51Due所有;未经51Due官方授权谢绝任何用途转载或刊发于媒体。如发生侵犯著作权现象,51Due保留一切法律追诉权。-J

我们的优势

  • 05年成立,已帮助上万人
  • 24小时专业客服
  • 团队成员都毕业于全球著名高校
  • 保证原创,支持检测

英国站