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TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA,英国作业--英国论文代写范文精选

2016-01-26 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

What makes a good piece of written work cannot be completely defined, but the list below sets out the criteria that will be used in assessing written work on this module.

In addition, we have provided a table of the four main criteria headings – Argument, Appreciation, Evidence and Readability – set against the six marking bands (A*, A, B, C, F, F*). As a rough guide, each of those four headings will attract approximately 25% of the total mark for the essay. In other words an essay may score very highly under some of the headings but less well on others. Thus for instance it may score well under Argument, Evidence and Readability, but less well on Appreciation. Generally, however, achievement within each of the headings is inter-related, so that good work under one heading requires good work throughout.

Choosing Your Topic and Title (revised, 26/02/07)
The point of the essay is for you to demonstrate what you have learnt from the module, so choose your topic accordingly. You will need to demonstrate that you understand at least one of the various alternatives to the technological determinist perspective on technological change. The approaches discussed in this module are:- the social shaping of technology, Actor Network Theory, evolutionary economics, and the social construction of selection environments (combining ANT with evolutionary economics). You should preferably be able to demonstrate that you can compare two or more of these approaches.

It will be easiest for you to choose to focus on a specific technology or industry sector that interests you. If you feel confident in your grasp of the module content you may also choose to focus on two or more technologies or industry sectors, and explore the extent to which it is or is not necessary to adjust analytical perspective. If you feel very confident of your grasp of the module, you may choose to write a more conceptual essay that focuses less on a specific technology or industry, and more on the intellectual debates around the various different approaches.

Overall Design
Any adequate essay will have a beginning, a middle and an end – an introduction, a main body, and a conclusion. At the very least, the introduction will tell the reader what the essay is about – the argument that is going to be made. The main body will set out and justify that argument, and the conclusion will summarise that argument and justification. In good essays, the introduction will set the scene for the reader – what the context is for the argument, why it is important, and what the implications might be – and the Conclusion will fully spell out those implications.

Written work must have a coherent structure and sequence leading to a conclusion that helps the reader to understand what argument is being put forward, as well as how effectively it is being made. Students may find it helpful to see the essay as the construction of an academic story in which the sequence of events and evidence, as well as the narrative, lead to a well rounded, well paced, intelligible and convincing piece of work. The word limit should not be exceeded.


Making an Argument
All written work is expected to make and pursue an argument. It should develop a line of reasoning that marshals evidence to support a conclusion. The line of reasoning should be precise, explicit and clear. It should demonstrate why your conclusion is valid and why you think it preferable to other possible interpretations. Markers and examiners will also be looking for evidence that you clearly understand the theories and approaches you are using.

Arguments often take place within a particular theoretical framework or between different theories or frames of reference, or with reference to a ‘classical text’. When your written work engages with a theory, or a particular approach to the analysis of your ideas, you should show why it is relevant to your argument, and how it is relevant to your conclusion.

A Critical Appreciation
Students should draw on a range of existing literature, sources and previous research studies to situate their own written work. As a useful preliminary it is helpful to consider different theories, models, studies, sources and/or viewpoints, and to compare and contrast their relative strengths and weaknesses.

The very best written work will demonstrate an original or creative approach to a problem or issue. There needs to be clarity in your line of approach to the issues you are tackling. Good written work does not just describe theories, it analyses the material in a way which makes clear that the concepts have been grasped and are available for the construction of arguments.


Providing Evidence to Support Your Argument
You should make it clear that you have read round the topic and used more than the minimum set reading; you should not rely only on what has been covered in class. Sources should be properly referenced using the Harvard system (see the Appendix to this Guide).

Evidence will generally be drawn from other literature and research. In addition, where specified in the question (e.g. “… drawing upon your own experience …”), you may use empirical data, such as that produced through data collection, your observations or other material you have analysed. When using your own observations, you should be as professional as possible – your observations should be restricted to that which is relevant to your argument; they should be described and discussed in a manner suitable for this module; and it should be clear that another person with your training would have made similar observations (although they may well have drawn different conclusions).

Good evidence is accurate, relevant, and to the point. In particular you need to be aware that tutors and examiners will be considering the extent to which your readings, data, observations or other material contribute to the overall argument and analysis of the essay; in other words your use of readings, data, observation or other material should not be merely descriptive. The evidence given should enable as complete a picture as possible to be presented including any material which counters or contradicts the main line of argument.

Use of Sources
Essays should be written in your own words. Whenever you use ideas from other sources you should be sure to reference them; where you use the exact words from another source you should ensure that the quotation is given accurately, placed in quotation marks, and referenced with page number(s); quotations from other sources are normally indented so as to differentiate them clearly from the student's own words.

You may wish loosely to paraphrase the ideas or words of others, but to do so without acknowledgment is unacceptable. Using the ideas or words of others as though they were your own may be deemed plagiarism, which could lead to disciplinary action.

Readability
Good written work uses a good range of vocabulary, and sentences with a clear construction, avoiding ambiguity. It uses paragraphs sensibly, to lay out a complete idea, concept or description. Good written work deploys argumentation styles which make the chain of reasoning clear, and descriptive styles which provide a good picture or understanding for the reader. The best written work will flow easily, with grace and style, and will lead the reader effortlessly through the text. It will deploy the full capacity of the written word to convince the reader through both argument and evocation.

Quality of English
Although we aim to teach the main substantive, conceptual and theoretical issues in relation to the degree concerned, rather than the technical aspects of written English, English is medium on this course through which your work is read and assessed by others; so it is important to ensure that your English is sufficiently good to be able clearly and intelligibly to state your arguments and to have them understood. In deciding on a mark for written work, English usage will be taken into account amongst the range of other factors which contribute to good work. Special consideration and support will be given to those students whose first language is not English.


Marking Bands
Your mark will be given within the following bands:

Grade A* - 80% and above
This grade is reserved for excellent originality, with clear potential for publication. An obvious ‘Distinction’ mark

Grade A – 70-79%
This is an excellent piece of work. A Distinction.

Grade B - 60-69%
This indicates a very good piece of work. A Merit.

Grade C - 50-59%
This is a good piece of work. A Pass

Grade F - 40-49%
This work is satisfactory but not good enough for Masters level, and therefore Failing
At Masters level, performance in this marking band indicates that the student's capacity for further significant advances in the subject, from the evidence of the essay, may be very limited. It also implies that completion of a successful dissertation may be unlikely.

Grade F* 39% or below
This is a Bad Fail, an extremely poor piece of work.

MARKING BANDS FOR THE FOUR MAIN ASSESSMENT CRITERIA


ArgumentAppreciationEvidenceReadability


A*Transparently clear, well-developed, detailed and sophisticated; it is clearly original and has considerable force Highly sophisticated, original and appropriately critical discussion of conceptual and substantive issues relevant to the moduleEvidence provided is exemplary and indicates a consistently excellent understanding of all the relevant literatureThe work is extremely well written with considerable flair, it is very well structured and a pleasure to read

AClear, strong, focused and well developed with some originalityA sophisticated and critical discussion of conceptual and substantive issues relevant to the module which shows evidence of original thinkingEvidence is very well chosen and indicates a very wide reading and an excellent understanding of what has been readThe writing is thoroughly understandable, and shows some flair; the structure is clear and logical.


BA very good set of arguments that are relevant and clear A critical appreciation of relevant issues, showing a very good ability to compare more than two differing perspectivesEvidence is very relevant, and there are clear signs of reading well beyond the minimum recommended texts and a very good understanding of what has been readThe quality of writing and the structure are both clear and understandable.

CA good development of the argumentThere is a good appreciation of the relevant issues and a good ability to compare at least two differing perspectivesThe work uses appropriate evidence and demonstrates a good awareness and understanding of the disciplinary issues from more than the minimum recommended texts The writing and structure are adequate

FThere is an attempt to develop an argumentThere is an attempt to develop an appreciation of the relevant issues and to compare two differing perspectivesThere is some evidence and it shows just enough acquaintance with relevant ideas to indicate that the student has gained some relevant knowledge from the module. The writing and/or structure result in an essay that is just possible to read


F*There is little or no evidence of any argument being deployed to answer the questionThere is little or no evidence of an understanding or appreciation of the relevant issuesNo evidence is deployed to support an argument; or the evidence is unrelated or invalid and suggests the student is unfamiliar with the relevant ideasThe writing and/or structure are extremely difficult to read and understand


An Example of Marking Bands with reference to a specific essay question:

Why would a practicing manager need to understand academic approaches to the study of innovation? Illustrate your discussion by drawing upon your own experience of one or two organisations.

Commentary:
The first part of this question is relatively open-ended, allowing the student to answer with reference to one or more of the following:- traditional approaches to the study of innovation (such as orthodox economics, business strategy or science policy, or any other approaches which assume that scientific and technological change are essentially exogenous to the social and economic context of an organisation); academically informed but essentially pragmatic approaches such as those of Abernathy & Utterback; social shaping approaches; social constructivist approaches; constructive technology assessment; or any combination of these.

The second part of the question asks the student to provide additional evidence for their argument from their own experience of one or two organisations.

The quality of an essay will depend more upon the ways in which the question as a whole is answered, the ways in which the two parts are integrated, rather than upon achievement within the answers to each part of the question.

Marking Bands
A Grade A answer will fully integrate the two parts – this will often mean that discussion of the first part of the question is interspersed with illustrations from experience, although it is equally possible to construct a Grade A argument using two separated answers that are then fully brought together in a substantial conclusion. The argument will reflect the criteria in the table above. The discussion will demonstrate a sophisticated and critical appreciation of the conceptual and substantive issues. In the context of this question this means that at least two of the approaches relevant to the first part of the question (preferably including one of the latter three approaches) should be compared and contrasted in an evaluative manner – that is, a judgement should be clearly argued as to the relative merits under an explicit set of criteria addressing both theoretical issues (questions of method, ethics, politics, etc) and substantive issues (technology trajectories, sites of innovation, specific cases, questions of user involvement, of specific industries, sectors or technologies, etc). The evidence will consist of (1) a wide set of reading well beyond the minimum set texts, showing sound understanding; and (2) a fully appropriate description and analysis of the student’s experiences of one or two organisations – that is, relevant observations described in a clear, methodical and reflective manner, showing due awareness that such observations should be as fair and impartial as possible.

A Grade B answer will demonstrate “a critical appreciation of relevant ideas”, which in this context will usually mean the use of at least two types of approach. It is always possible, however, to demonstrate some evidence of critical appreciation through the use of other sources of critique, other readings. The evidence will consist of readings which reflect the Grade B criteria above, plus a clear description with some analysis of the student’s experiences.

A Grade C answer may be restricted to only one of the types of approach relevant to the first part of the question, and it should be clear which approach is being adopted. There may be some understanding of the difference between approaches. There will be a description of the student’s experiences, but there may be little analysis and the style of description may be inappropriate (e.g. too heavily based on subjective impressions without any reinforcement from observations; or unnecessarily objective – too reliant on data or secondary material).


PLAGIARISM

•The intellectual work of others that is being summarised in the written work must be attributed to its source. This includes material you yourself have published or submitted for assessment here or elsewhere.
•It is also plagiarism if you copy the work of another student. In that case both the plagiariser and the student who allows their work to be copied will be disciplined.
•In written work it is not sufficient to just indicate that you have used other people's work by citing them in your list of references at the end. It is also not sufficient to just put "(Bloggs 1992)" at the end of a paragraph where you have copied someone else’s words. It is essential that the paragraph itself be IN YOUR OWN WORDS.
•The only exception to this is if you are quoting a source. In that case you must put the quotation in quotation marks and cite the source, including page reference, immediately afterwards. If the quotation is longer than a sentence, you should indent and set off the whole passage; when the quotation is indented in this way it is not necessary to use quotation marks, but, as always, the author, date, and page number should be cited.
•It is assumed that all ideas, opinions, conclusions, specific wording, quotations, conceptual structure and data, whether reproduced exactly or in paraphrase, which are not referenced to another source, are your work. If this is not the case, an act of plagiarism may have occurred, which is cause for disciplinary action at the programme or University level. IT MAY LEAD TO DISMISSAL FROM THE UNIVERSITY.
Here is a real-life example of plagiarism. We first quote an extended passage from a text-book, then a passage from a real student essay.
A quotation from Mike Featherstone, Consumer Culture and Postmodernism (London, Sage), p. 14 (emphasis added – some passages have been underlined to indicate where the student has plagiarised):
If from the perspectives of classical economics the object of all production is consumption, with individuals maximizing their satisfactions through purchasing from an ever-expanding range of goods, then from the perspective of some twentieth-century neo-Marxists this development is regarded as producing greater opportunities for controlled and manipulated consumption. The expansion of capitalist production, especially after the boost received from scientific management and ‘Fordism’ around the turn of the century, it is held, necessitated the construction of new markets and the 'education' of publics to become consumers through advertising and other media (Ewen, 1976). This approach, traceable back to Lukács’s (1971) Marx-Weber synthesis with his theory of reification, has been developed most prominently in the writings of Horkheimer and Adorno (1972), Marcuse (1964) and Lefebvre (1971), Horkheimer and Adorno, for example, argue that the same commodity logic and instrumental rationality manifest in the sphere of production is noticeable in the sphere of consumption. Leisure time pursuits, the arts and culture in general become filtered through the culture industry; reception becomes dictated by exchange value as the higher purposes and values of culture succumb to the logic of the production process and the market...
Student essay:

From the perspective of some twentieth century neo-Marxists these developments produce greater opportunities for controlled and manipulated consumption. On the one hand critical theorists from the Frankfurt school stress that the same commodity logic and instrumental rationality manifested in the sphere of production is also noticeable in the sphere of consumption. Leisure time pursuits- the arts and culture become filtered through the 'culture industry': the mass media and popular culture. (Adorno and Horkheimer, 1979). Reception becomes dictated by exchange value as the higher purposes and values of culture succumb to the logic of the production process and the market.

Clearly, this student did not express the ideas in their own words; there is no way of knowing whether he or she understood the original. The student was convicted of plagiarism.



REFERENCING


A most important feature of academic work is the proper acknowledgement of the work of others in relation to your own work. When planning any kind of study the first thing to do, after defining your subject area, is to review the literature available on the subject. It may be helpful to consider recording all the information that you have consulted as a database on a computer or on index cards. This will save a lot of time later on, and in particular it is important to note where you found the information as well as the details of the reference itself so that it may be traced again. Remember that it may not be clear during a degree course which material will be most relevant for your needs as the degree proceeds, as your own ideas and interests change.

•Definitions

A reference is any piece of information (book, journal article, or video) to which the writer of an essay or dissertation refers directly either by quotation or by the author's name. A reference gives information about the source (usually an original source) from which the writer of the essay or dissertation has taken or used material. The purpose of a reference is to enable the reader to locate that information as easily and quickly as possible. Individual references used in the text are, in addition, compiled in a list at the end of a piece of written work.

A bibliography is an extended list of references dealing with particular subject matter, and may include not only the references made by the writer in the text of an essay or dissertation, but also others the writer has found useful, perhaps as background reading, even though they are not directly referred to in the written work itself.

On this module you will only supply a list of references directly used in the essay, not a bibliography.

In summary, students will be expected in their written work to refer directly by source and/or author to any material that they have used in their essay, and to provide a list of those references on a separate page or pages at the end of the essay (in other words, NOT within footnotes).

•Writing References

Why write references?

•References are needed both to give credit to authors whose work has been used and to enable readers to find out where material came from in which they may be interested. Readers may wish to check that the reference is a correct citation of a source, and to follow up by reading that source.

•References help support an argument and validate any statements that are made. Any phrases, sentences or paragraphs taken from another source must be acknowledged, as must ideas from such a source; if the acknowledgement is not made it is called plagiarism and your own work will be discredited, and sanctions imposed if this is discovered.

•Harvard Referencing System

•There are many methods of writing and arranging references so that they may be accurately and systematically recorded. We believe that the Harvard system is the most appropriate to use for your written work on this module, and it will be mandatory for all written work handed in for assessment. The Harvard system is based on the author's surname and is easy to use and to check. The system can be used for both reference lists and bibliographies. Do NOT mix it up with any other referencing scheme (such as ones using numbered references in the text).

•Using Harvard References in the Text itself

In the text, if you summarise what an author has said in your own words, you need only reference the author's surname and the year of publication of the book or article concerned e.g. Walters (1989). However if a book is lengthy and you are referring to an argument in one chapter or even a page number, rather than the whole book, you should add the chapter or page number in addition e.g. Walters (1989 Chap.1) or Walters (1989 p.325). A brief paragraph illustrating this approach is as follows:

Walters (1989 Chap.1) argues that the deregulation of public service broadcasting has lead to a decline in programme choice for viewers. This view is contested by Veljanovski (1989). However, in the specific area of news it finds support in claims made by Murdock (1990:22).

If you quote directly from a book or journal and you want to quote only a few words you do so as follows within the text of your essay:

It has been argued that 'currently the most dynamic approach to media reform is inspired by classical neo-liberalism of the "free" market' (Curran 1988:16).

If you quote directly from a book or journal and want to quote a slightly longer piece to assist your argument you would normally indent the quote and of course refer to the page number from the source thus:

Industrial democracy in the press can be implemented directly by statute. Alternatively it could be encouraged in new ventures through the terms of reference of the media enterprise board. (Curran 1988: 24).

Do not use direct quotes unnecessarily, but they are useful if they add to the significance of your argument, and are not too lengthy.

If you refer to more than one work by the same author in the same year you can distinguish between the works by using the suffix a, b etc., thus Turner (1990a), Turner (1990b). Where authors have the same surname you will need to give their first initial to distinguish them, thus Turner V. (1991), Turner B. (1991).

•Footnotes
There are a number of different academic styles for footnotes (numbered notes at the foot of the page) and endnotes (numbered notes at the end of the essay). Footnotes are generally easier for the reader and thus also the marker and examiner. You should use either footnotes or endnotes, not both.

You should not use footnotes simply to cite a single reference. Although such a style is used in many academic books and journals, it does not fit well with the Harvard system, which is designed for references given in the text.

You should use footnotes or endnotes sparingly, and generally only to say something additional which cannot sensibly be incorporated in the text. Examples might be:- (a) to mention an additional implication or issue which is interesting but not directly relevant to the current argument; (b) to give further informative details, for instance the background to a piece of research, which again is useful but not directly relevant; (c) to give a long list of references – this should in any case generally be avoided, with references given for discrete points or arguments.

A Harvard List of References at the End of a Text

At the end of your essay on a separate sheet titled References you list all the full references alphabetically by author's surname using the following rules. Do not show separate lists for books and journals; all references used should be given in the same list.

•When there is more than one work by the same author, order these works by the date of publication in ascending order (thus 1994, 1995 etc.).
•Where there is more than one work by an author in the same year, order thus 1990a, 1990b etc. within each year.
•As in the case of the 'Turners' above the initial will be used to decide alphabetic priority in the reference list, thus Turner B., would come before Turner V.
•If there is more than one author then the references are listed alphabetically by the first author.
•Single authored works by a particular author are all placed before multiple authored works by the same author, overriding date of publication, thus Kleinman (1985) would come before Kleinman and Good (1983). But if there are several single or multiple authored works then they are ordered within ascending date order WITHIN each group, thus the order would go Kleinman (1985), Kleinman (1986), then Kleinman and Good (1983), Kleinman and Helman (1982).

•In the unlikely event that a bibliography is needed to indicate the additional reading you have undertaken but not referred to in the text, this should be placed on a separate sheet headed Bibliography.

More Information on Compiling a Harvard Reference List


The Sequence of Information Required in Referencing a Book

•First, author's surname followed by initials. The convention is that you use the author's name exactly as s/he has used it in her/his book. If there are more than three authors, use the first author and initials followed by et al, although if there are three or fewer authors all should be named.
•If the author(s) edited the book, put (Ed.) or (Eds.) after their names
•Second, year of publication (in brackets).
•Third, title of work (in full, including any sub-title) - use bold type, or underlining, or italics to make the title stand out, and choose only ONE of these methods for each reference list you compile.
•Fourth, edition of the work if there has been more than one.
•Fifth, title of collection or series if it belongs to one, and the volume number.
•Sixth, place of publication (use the British one if there are multiple places mentioned).
•Seventh, publisher's name.

Examples

Weick, Karl E. (1995) Sensemaking in organizations, London: Sage

Westwood, R. & Clegg, S. (Eds.) (2003) Debating Organization: Point-Counterpoint in Organization Studies Oxford: Blackwell

Barker M. (1984) The Video Nasties: Freedom and Censorship in the Media London: Pluto.

Thompson, P. and McHugh, D. (2002) Work Organisations: A Critical Introduction, 3rd Edition London: Palgrave.


The Sequence of Information Required in Referencing an Article

•First, author's surname, followed by initials. If there are more than three authors, use the first author and initials followed by et al, although if there are three or fewer authors all should be named. If the author is unknown (for instance a non-attributed editorial or news report in a newspaper or magazine), then list the newspaper or magazine title as the author.
•Second, year of publication (in brackets)
•Third, title of the article in lower case characters apart from the first word, and also in single quotation marks. Do NOT use bold type, italics or underlining for the title of an article.
•Fourth, the title of the journal in full, using bold type, underlining or italics. Use whichever system you have used for book titles, do NOT use two different systems (eg underlining and bold) in the same reference list.
•Fifth, volume number of journal, and issue number within volume. It is sometimes helpful, although not absolutely necessary to include a date or month when the issue was published (thus Vol. 80 No. 6 September 5). If referencing an article or news item from a newspaper or magazine, always give the date of publication (day, week or month).
•Sixth, the number of the first and last page numbers of the article.

Examples

Smircich, Linda (1983), “Concepts of culture and organization analysis”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 28(3), pp. 339-58.

Willmott, H. (1993) “Strength is ignorance, slavery is freedom: managing culture in modern organizations”, Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 30(4), pp 515-52

Knights, D. & Morgan, G (1991) “Strategic discourse and subjectivity: Towards a critical analysis of corporate strategy in organisations” Organization Studies Vol. 12 (3), pp 251-273.

Financial Times (2002) ‘Shining light down dark tunnels’, Editorial, Monday November 11th 2002, page 22.

Remember that, as with book titles, the name of a journal is either underlined, put in bold, or italicised. Again, choose only ONE method (the same as for book titles) and stick to it.

The Sequence of Information Required in Referencing an Article in a Book

Social science articles often appear in edited collections in books; they are referenced in the following way.

•First, surname of the article's author followed by initials. If there are more than three authors, use the first author and initials followed by et al, although if there are three or fewer authors all should be named.
•Second, year of publication of the edited book (in brackets).
•Third, the title of the article in lower case characters apart from the first word, and also in single quotation marks. Do NOT use bold type, underlining or italics here.
•Fourth put 'In' and then the surname of the book's editor followed by initials. The convention is that you use the editor's name exactly as s/he has used it in her/his book. If there are more than three editors, use the first editor and initials followed by et al, although if there are three or fewer all editors all should be named.
•Fifth, the Editor or Editors (in brackets) thus (Ed.) or (Eds.).
•Sixth, the title of edited book (in full including any sub-title) - use bold type, or underlining, or italics to make the title stand out, and choose only ONE of these methods for each reference list you compile.
•Seventh, the edition of the work if there has been more than one.
•Eighth, the title of collection or series if it belongs to one, and the volume number.
•Ninth, the place of publication (use the British one if there are multiple places mentioned).
•Tenth, the publisher's name.
•Eleventh, the first and last pages of the article in the edited book.

Examples

Robinson I. (1990) 'Clinical trials and the collective ethic' In Weisz G. (Ed.) Social Science Perspectives on Medical Ethics Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press pp.19-40

Nichols B. (1986) ‘Questions of magnitude’TheAssignment is provided by UK Assignment in Corner J. (Ed.) Documentary and the Mass Media London: Edward Arnold pp. 107-124

Adams P. (1994) ‘The three (dis)graces)’ In Bal M. And Boer I (Eds.) The Point of Theory Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam Press pp. 232-38

Secondary Referencing
•When you make use of a reference that is quoted in the work of another author, and you have the full reference to the original, you must cite both references. Thus you give the original reference, and say 'cited in' and give the full reference where the citation occurred.

•In general it is bad practice to use secondary sources, apart from being a rather lazy and suspect way of deriving evidence for an argument. It may be the case that the citations are incorrect and this has, on occasion, led to a sequence of errors originating from one incorrect citation which has then been perpetuated by other authors who have not checked the original themselves. In any case the secondary interpretation of an original source may not be one that you would agree with on re-reading the original.


Referencing Institutional Reports and Publications
•Works that are not the responsibility of an individual should be listed under the name of the organisation concerned, e.g. Department of Trade and Industry (1999)/Age Concern (1990)/Department of Health and Social Security (1993)/THERIP (1990)/CFAR (1999). For the purposes of referencing, these should be considered to be books with an institutional author, and placed alphabetically in the reference list at the end of your written work.


Referencing Electronic Documents
•Increasingly often it is useful to refer to electronic documents in written work (with due caution about the quality of unreferenced publications like web sites). Electronic documents might be World Wide Web pages, contributions to newsgroups or bulletin boards, or files made available by the author for downloading from the Internet. As with conventionally published documents, it is crucial to give reference information for electronic documents in a standard and complete fashion. You should choose a standard way of citing electronic documents which, as far as possible, would enable a reader to trace that document. A number of different standard schemes for referencing electronic documents have been developed. You can find links to some of these at http://www.ifla.org/I/training/citation/citing.htm

•One particular problem which can arise with web pages is that the information you have is incomplete: there may be no author or publication date. In these cases you should give information which is as complete as possible. If the date is missing you can at least give the date on which you accessed the page: readers will then at least know the page was produced before that date.

•Here are three examples of common situations when citing electronic documents.
•A WWW page with no date
Morgan, Gareth (no date) Strategic Termites: The Power of Self-Organization, available at
http://www.imaginiz.com/provocative/organize/termites.html [Accessed Sept. 18th 2004]

•An electronic journal article
Robbins, Peter (2004) 'Global Visions and Globalizing Corporations: An Analysis of Images and Texts from Fortune Global 500 Companies' Sociological Research Online, vol. 9, no. 2, http://www.socresonline.org.uk/9/2/robbins.html [Accessed Sept. 18th 2004]

•An online Working or Discussion paper
Bolton, Sharon (2003) “Introducing A Typology Of Workplace Emotion” Lancaster University Management School Working Paper Series No. 2003/064 http://www.lums.co.uk/publications/viewpdf/209/ [accessed Sept 19th 2004]


Remember, if you have any problem over referencing, that the object of the process is to provide as accurate a means as possible for someone else to locate the exact source of material you are using. This way you cannot go far wrong.

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