Motive of the Study
More and more liguists and scholars began to study the advertising, however linguistsand scholars mostly study advertising from the aspect of functional grammar, persomalfunction, relevance theory, sociology and translation between Chinese and English. Study on nutritional foods advertising English from the aspect of critical discourse analysis (CDA) isfew. Through researching some nutritional foods advertising, this thesis tries to analyzenutritional foods advertising English of collected materials from the aspect of CDA. It aims toreveal the ideology of the advertisers and producers hidden from the advertising language toillusrate how nutritional foods advertising English influences, persuades and misleads theconsumers to buy the products through the English advertising language. This analysis aimsto improve the customers’ consciousness and sensitivity of nutritional foods advertisingEnglish and then help the customers read the advertisements critically in order to avoidmisleading and strengthen their awareness of resisting the control of the public discourse. Italso attempts to draw customers’ attention to the relationships between the language andreality, the connection between language use and unfair social power relations.
Significance of the Study
As the progress of society and the development of economy, there are more and morepeople under the great pressure, the people’s living standards improve a lot and people takemore and more care about their own health, nutritional foods regulates the fuction of human’sbody, then people pay more and more attention on the nutritional foods and tend to buy them.So the nutritional foods stepped into ordinary people’s lives. People range from old to youngwould like to spend much time, energy and money on nutritional foods in order to keephealthy and be energetic, then people can live better and work more effective. However, themain source that people get the information of nutritional foods is advertisemets. So theadvertisements attract more and more people, mostly through their language before peoplebuy them. And it is very necessary and useful to investigate nutritional foods advertisingarticles. According to previous study, this thesis analyzes the collected nutritional foodsadvertising English from the aspect of CDA and shows how nutritional foods advertisingEnglish influences, misleads and persuades consumers through ideology.
Studies of Advertising
Nowadays, no matter where we go, we can see advertising, such as on TV, newspaper,magazines, Internet, books, radios. We can see it almost everywhere. It greatly influences ourdaily life and is very important and closely related to our life. According to Webster Dictionary defined advertising as the been told form on thepurpose of strengthening to sale goods, transmitting some kinds of doctrine or information,calling together to attend all kinds of parties and assenblies through direct to indirect ways.According to Longman Dictionary of Contemprary English, advertisement means a picture,set of words, or a short film, which is intended to persuade people to buy a product or use aservice. Advertising means the activity or business of advertising things on television, innewspapers etc. Advertisement is a propagandistic mean to transmit information throughcertain form of mass media to public openly and widely for some specific needs.Western society gave a common acceptable deifinition is that advertising is the news aboutproduct or service. Lasker Albert is the father of modern advertising and thinks thatadvertising is the salesmanship in print, which is driven by a reason why. There is somepersuasive meaning in sales promotion. Advertising is defined by Committee on Definitionsof the American Marketing Association (AMA) as the non-personal communication ofinformation usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideasby identified sponsors through the mass media. According to Coutland L. Bovee and WilliamF. Aren, it is the non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usuallypersuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by dentified sponsors through thevarious media.
Studies on Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)
Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is not only a theory but also an method to analyzingsome certain discourses. This thesis adopts critical discourse analysis approach to analyzenutritional foods advertisiements, so it is necessary to introduce some relevant concepts andtheory.Discourse analysis is a general term for a number of approaches to analyzing written,spoken or signed laguage use, which concentrates on the components and structure of thesentence and does not treat itself as an analysis of language in use. Critical Discourse Analysisaims to analyze the larger units and structure.It can go back to literature criticism in the 20thcentury, which was gradually producedthrough Britain practical criticism. American new criticism, French structuralism. As a trendof critical linguistics emerged in the late 1970s, the “linguistic turn” in social sciences and“social turn” in linguistics started to take off (Wodak, 2001a). In the late 1970s, the campaignthat called linguistic criticism began, which studied the relations between the text and thesocial, historical context. And linguistic methods were used into the literature criticism. Whilelanguage was regarded as a social practice and became social, political and economic whichprovides a new perspective for discourse analysis. Through using linguistic analysis as themain approach, it relates the results of the analysis to the social-cultural context of thediscourse to reveal the ideologies hidden in the discourse and the relationship between theideologies and the discourse. (Fowler, 1991). And literature critics regarded the text as a modeof discourse that debases literature text as non-literature text broadens linguistic criticism.Finally, these great changes led to the formation of a kind of comprehensive linguisticresearch, that is named critical linguistics.
The Analysis of the Collected Materials
In the first step of Fairclough’s three-dimensional model, that is description. We willapply the theory of Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistics to describe the linguisticfeatures which embody the different functions of the collected materials.. This section will interpret the lexical classification in the examples from collectednutritional foods advertisements and finally give the explanation of the social contexts of thelexical classification.Advertising wants to attract more customers’ attention and arouse their interest throughlanguage, which requires advertising language, including nutritional foods advertisinglanguage must be influential, vivid and attractive. So the choice of the words plays animportant role in the nutritional foods advertising language. Advertising English often uses a lot of verbs. Nutritional Foods advertising is also likethis. Some words like “help, get, make, use, need, take, meet, change, bring” are often used.The words used in advertising should be simple, popular, easy to read, understand andremember. Some other words, which are used to describe the function and working process arealways adopted, such as “protect, assist, assess, provide”.
This thesis studies from critical discourse analysis, and uses ideology of language,which aims to reveal the effect of ideology on advertising texts and customers throughlanguage form. Language and discourse can be regarded as the concrete social practice, whichcan influence people’s ideology and psychology, then it can control people’s behaviorindirectly. Discourse is an instrument of control and communication and it involves distortionand manipulate readers, while critical is to dispose and correct the distortion and inequality,CDA works in this way.We adopt Noam Fairclough’s three-dimensional concept as the general analyticguideline in this thesis. This thesis adopted Fairclough’s three-dimensional model of discourseanalysis as the basic guideline and Halliday’s Systemic-Functional Grammar, we have studiedNutritional Foods Advertisemts from the perseptive of critical discourse analysis to study therelationship among language, power and ideology, and explore their effects in the nutritionalfoods advertisements, then help people improve the ability of critically readingadvertisements to choose the right product that are really useful for them.