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19世纪的中国外资银行--英国论文代写范文精选

2016-03-08 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51due作为英国最大的论文代写网,在论文写作方面积累了大量的经验,下面请看精选report代写范文“19世纪的中国外资银行The 19 th to the 1920 s in China of foreign Banks“。这篇论文主要讲述的是19世纪,西方银行资本和工业资本逐渐融合,形成了金融资本,资本输出成为金融资本扩张的重要手段,于是把资本向中国转移,中国国家银行也相应变化,金融贷款,铁路借贷和企业投资主要银行投资活动也在这一时期出现,外资银行在中国的投资活动加强,它不仅赢得了所有的各种银行业务,而且还扩大到完全不属于银行的功能。南京国民政府自1927年成立以来,采取了一系列的金融和经济政策和措施,而且,在某种程度上,促进经济发展,从而打压外资银行的扩张。19世纪末,外资银行扩张的动力和力量相对停滞一段时间,此后在整个金融行业外资银行机构已变得相对狭窄。

At the turn of the century, western bank capital and industrial capital gradually shirt-sleeve, form the financial capital, capital output become the financial capital of expansion important means. Countries in the China bank also corresponding change, to finance loans, railway borrowing and enterprise investment primarily bank investment activities in this period of the bank from the business.

During the sino-japanese war between, the qing government has passed the two countries raising the bank several pens amount of debt amount not young, a total of 4000 more than two thousand. After the signing of the treaty of shimonoseki, the qing government to pay for the war reparations and redeem the liao fee, successively through the bank to the Russian, French, British and German four raised three times the money, namely the July 1895 Russian law 400 million francs loans, in March of 1896 and February 1898 British and German two times each £ 16 million borrowings. Since then, the qing government and the northern government hall and constantly borrowing, which is a 1913 "after-care big loan" in 1918 and "west the original loan". "After-care big loan" for the amount of pounds 25 million pounds, the silver dollar is 248.27 million yuan, including HSBC bank 7.416 million pounds, DE China bank 6 million pounds, and calyon bank 7.416 million pounds, HuaE way-bank 2.777 million pounds, yokohama is gold bank 5 million pounds, and the other BiGuo collected by bearing 1.388 million pounds. "West the original loan" by Japanese industrial bank, north Korea and Taiwan Banks to bank loan to the northern government 145 million yen.

The turn of the century, China's rise of the railroad boom that for countries and in China bank a chance to give a taste of. As HSBC bank, for example, in 1898 the HSBC commitment shall shut inside and outside railway (in Beijing railway) 2.3 million pound loan, in addition to the bank's China HSBC and together in 1908 and in 1910 and 8 million pounds of nanjing-chuxian section on jin-pu railway loan railway and 2.96 million pounds, and calyon bank $1908 loan hankou-beijing railway loan 5 million pounds a year. World bank also unite China to borrow money for the railway. Britain, France, Germany, the United States four bank group joined together HuGuang railway loan, together with 6 million pounds for the loan.

Foreign Banks in China investment activities in the strengthening still behave in it for foreign enterprise in China and China's own enterprise long-term capital and short-term capital assistance, especially since 1890's, the size of the investment bank there's a big inflation. HSBC bank is only a character, until 1913, the enterprise investment amount it reached 9.4 million yuan, accounting for 6.8% of the total amount of the bank loans. Foreign Banks in China scope of investment, and constantly expand, widely to the flour, machinery, leather, chemical, hardware and many other industrial sector, real estate has become investment. China's shandong pingdu gold mines, kaiping coal mine, WuChangZhi chihli layout and hanyang iron political situation, margin, the textile mill in the PE and textile mill have have become foreign bank in China of the borrower.

This period of the bank has surged political color, often in their borrowing attached with a political requirements, become it represents the country's political tools. Imperialist countries through the bank loan grab China customs and salt tax storage tube rights. Foreign Banks in China's political also performance for their governments actively cooperate with carve up China, for the forces range and other activities. At the time of the railway construction in China is powers expand aggression, for the forces of the range an important means. Foreign Banks in China is actively cooperate with this method, form "to the railway and bank conquer China strategy". This political also reflected in bank business scope. Such as word-bank, it not only won all of the various bank business, but also expanded to completely do not belong to the function of the bank. It's a bank agency, you can directly to the qing government called for the creation of a Russian local consulate. The special function of the range widely that it is both in Russia in "China's national bank", it is in Russia in "the central government of China", it is both financial and political, "the former cover the latter, and the latter is the real motivation".

This period, foreign Banks in China in China the imbalance of power expanded. After the sino-japanese war, Japanese, Russian and American forces three Banks, have into China, formed the three forces bigger Banks. They were Japan's bank is gold, Russian HuaE way-bank, America's citibank. To citigroup, for example, was established in 1901, the beginning of establishment of paid-in capital only $500000, to 1926 totaled $5 million, for start-up capital 10 times, rated capital even to us $650. In addition to the three forces outside of the big Banks, in the 20 century, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy and the Nordic countries such as Norway Banks were successively enter into China. Veteran foreign bank in this period also get the full and updated. Like France's calyon bank replaced the original French bank, Germany's abundant Banks instead of the deutsche bank. Britain's Michael galilee and HSBC bank further expansion, such as HSBC bank was in 1907 and in 1921, two times increase capital, increased from 10 million to 20 million, profit rose to 1.6 million by capital 14 million yuan, has increased 7.8 times, bank reserve by the 5.5 million rose to 75 million increased 12.6 times, is other foreign countries in China exceed the bank.

The new bank into and old bank full update, leading to the English, French, German, Japanese, Russian, beauty top six tripartite confrontation, competitive situation. But after a fierce competition after, countries to recognize any countries may not take China, in order to maintain their own interests, they began to united, has formed four bank group, the six nations such as China bank group Shared the loans. After some after the race, the bank group in the United States under control final consortium, the United States has become the new international bank group leader, replaced Britain, China won the expansion of advantage.

(4) at the end of the 1920 s to the liberation of foreign Banks in China

Nanjing national government since its inception in 1927, adopted a series of the financial and economic policies and measures, and, to some extent, promote the economic development. But the KMT's economic development process was interrupted by a Japanese aggression. From 1931 Mukden incident, Japan began to attack China, captured the three northeast provinces in China, 1937 years after the incident on Japan launched full-scale war of aggression against China and began from then on, China has entered a period of eight years of war and then entered the war of liberation.

Compared with the previous 80 years, a period of expansion of foreign Banks momentum and power relative stagnated in a period. In the entire financial industry, the foreign bank institutions relatively narrow. In the year 1936, the China endowment bank total 164 home, branch 1332, foreign Banks and only 32 home (not including the Japanese in the northeast of the local small open bank), branch 141, quantity is concerned, before the sort of the sauce is better than the fish trend, obviously has changed.

Foreign bank's business, because the loss of privilege, and they prospered compared to period in blue. People in foreign bank's deposit is greatly reduced and the orders to them the customs tariff of China and salt tax in 1930 over the central bank, bank of China and the charge, they published money also greatly curtailed, in 1935 monetary reform, in Shanghai to the circulation of bank notes is 3 million yuan only, in tianjin, the circulation is 1.5 million yuan, total 4.5 million yuan, only for the total FaHangShu 15 per thousand. The kuomintang government came on, rely mainly on domestic bonds issued to compensate for the fiscal deficit, foreign Banks in China in the past from handling huge foreign debt gain channel also has largely disappeared.

Foreign Banks in the expansion of the said period of stagnation, doesn't refer to their financial has to consider, and just say look from whole, they expand momentum that has had no previous rapid, actually individual bank business growth rate is still quite large. Such as HSBC bank deposits, and the total amount of hk $1913 in 298.19 million, 1920 in and hk $451.06 million, by 1932 to 931.63 million hk dollar, according to 60% if in China absorption calculation, is the home of 146 local Banks deposit 25.5% of all combined.

In this period, foreign Banks in China aggression power growth has also had the significant changes. Japanese Banks began to aggressively expanding. Japan through the expansion war zones, and constantly merger of financial institutions, established the puppet manchukuo "central bank", pseudo united preparation bank, plundered territory. 1941 years after the outbreak of the Pacific war, Japan and took over the United States, Britain, the Netherlands, Belgium and other countries in the China bank, so far the bank of Japan has exclusive everything.

After the surrender of Japan, the United States instead of Japan's status. After the victory of Anti-Japanese War, the United States politics has to the kuomintang government provide about $500 million m of aid and loans worth the $2 billion "relief", the sale let, given wait for aid. These large amounts of "American aid" financial business there is no doubt that the United States in China by bank jpmorgan chase bank, and citigroup exclusive down. The two Banks has undertaken at that time all the money between China and the exchange, settlement and beauty jiang about the deal between gold and silver and exchange, so far the U.S. bank in China has made absolute advantage position.

(5) the Chinese modern bank, exchange and the national banking

As foreign financial forces infiltrated and strengthen, the Chinese original financial organization, the bank, the money exchange was evolved the new changes.

As China's Banks, the old financial group, a start from the foreign attention. In foreign trade company and the mainland Banks become the foreign businessman between "coupling", and help them to identify, silver, and gold, currency exchange, financing and liquidation financial, etc. Issued by the Banks of the zhuang ticket is a foreign business activities in China and indispensable to credit tools. By the nineteenth century in the s, in the bank the comprador promote under, foreign Banks and between Banks and launched tear open of business. Bank "in accordance with their needs every day", "foreign bank account to borrow the necessary funds", in order to "do large business", and foreign Banks also "willing to use the best way to use them extra cash". This kind of open, usually two day settlement one time, take the low interest rate than the market, but foreign Banks think is necessary, may at any time want it back. In the bank and foreign bank established open of relationship between foreign Banks and original of the liquidation of the relationship between, nature also transferred to the company and between foreign Banks.

Foreign Banks were receiving and zhuang ticket foreign Banks to vote for guarantee Banks to village loan, and promote the development of underground business, expanding the strength of the Banks, also make bank capital nature appear certain change, in the currency business capital full development basis to loan capital direction transition. Such as Shanghai places of Banks, in 1925-1927, had 31 pen industrial loans, loans to national capitalist enterprise, total 2.19 million yuan.

But as the President of China, the development of capitalism, because Banks are still hard to resist the situation of transformation, from 1927 years later began to decline. "Waste two gaiyuan" and "been policy" to the traditional Banks "foreign li", "silver and" business is lost, transfer system also will be negative. Plus the bankruptcy of the rural economy, the United States policy of silver China silver caused a large number of outflow, make bank inventory empty, the capital turnover failure, bank to decline. After the war, and suffering from underground to the impact of the vicious inflation, and atrophy down.

Exchange is mainly by exchange is given priority to, in order to deposit money, supplemented by financial organization. Its capital general at hundreds of thousands of two, far more than bank is abundant, in the whole nation each main commercial city is provided a semicolon exchange, can be directly correspondent. Some in the import and export trade of Chinese businessman and use of exchange exchange nets, in mainland China and trade port on the collection of payment for goods between solution, also has turned to exchange to import and export trade, and played an important role. But in exchange management idea still on strong feudal and conservative, facing the rise of new banking industry, exchange accordingly, no change, the qing government a was overthrown, quickly turned to decline exchange.

At the same time in foreign countries in China bank high profits demonstration, and save LiQuan sport promotion, new China bank was born. In 1897 China's first bank, China merchants bank was born. Of the 20 th century later, new bank set up constantly. According to statistics, by 1911 the check, have established 30 home China endowment bank, the bank is one of the most important fact bank (1908 years later renamed the qing bank) and traffic bank. After the revolution of, the bank was renamed the qing bank of China, and the traffic bank became the government together two big fiscal and financial support. At the same time, the bank also get sometime rapid development. 1912 to 1927 new set of 302 China endowment bank home, of which 247 have tradesmen managing bank, accounting for eighty percent of the total number of the newly established bank. After some balance, a final form Shanghai commercial savings bank, zhejiang industrial bank, zhejiang industrial bank, jincheng bank, salt, central China bank, bank mainland Banks several famous bank. The kuomintang government, after the establishment of their Banks continue to be developed. From 1928 to 1936 years of 19 years, the newly established bank in 128. Midway closure and home, only 105. The total amount of the bank's capital in 1925 is 158 million yuan, to 1934 to 356 million yuan, increased 1.25 times in 10 years. But this time, the country bureaucratic capitalism rapidly. The kuomintang government began monopoly financial, formed the central bank, bank of China, bank of Chinese farmers, bank of communications, the provider of central trust, postal remittance innings of the "four rows two frames" bureaucratic capital credit system.

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