欢迎来到51Due,请先 | 注册
关注我们: 51due论文代写二维码 51due论文代写平台微博
英国论文代写,英国essay代写知名品牌微信

更多范文

为您解决留学中生活、学习、工作的困难、疑惑
释放自我

BRIC Nations: Focus On India--英国论文代写范文精选

2016-04-26 | 来源:51Due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

51Due英国论文代写网精选assignment代写范文:“BRIC Nations: Focus On India”,这篇论文主要描述的是在经济学的研究中,人们通常把巴西、中国、俄罗斯、印度这四个经济保持高速增长的发展中国家合称为金砖四国,来显示出这些发展中国家对于世界经济发展的贡献,这些国家的人口数占全球人口总数约40%,但经济发展却没有得益于人口的发展处于世界中游,经济学家认为按照目前的发展速度,金砖国家在2050年的经济总和和超过世界上最富有的国家的经济总数,其中印度最为典型。

In economics, BRIC (typically rendered as "the BRICs" or "the BRIC countries") is an acronym that refers to thefast-growing developing economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. The acronym was first coined and prominently used by Goldman Sachs in 2001. According to a paper published in 2005, Mexico and South Korea are the only other countries comparable to the BRICs, but their economies were excluded initially because they were considered already more developed Goldman Sachs argued that, since they are developing rapidly, by 2050 the combined economies of the BRICs could eclipse the combined economies of the current richest countries of the world. The four countries, combined, currently account for more than a quarter of the world's land area and more than 40% of theworld's population.

PRIMARY OBJECTIVE

To ascertain the growth prospect in BRIC countries by doing in-depth and detailed analysis of the economic situations in these countries.

To identifying key opportunities for growth in different industry sectors at the economies of Brazil Russia, India and China.

RESEARCH DESIGN

The design used for carrying out this research is EXPLORATORY & EXPERIENCED based. This type of research is tentative and it is qualitative in nature. Exploration is particularly useful when researchers lack a clear idea of the problems. The approach used in the study was both qualitative as well as quantitative as only theoretical aspects are not considered but their practicality is also been observed.

DATA COLLECTION

SECONDARY DATA

My study is based only on secondary data collected from multivariate websites . A large number of online & published reports have been studied to analyze the growth forecaste of BRIC countries

CRITICAL REVIEW OF LITERATURE

BRIC or BRICs are terms used in economics to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. The fortunes of the world economy over the next decade depend on what happens in the BRIC countries: Brazil, Russia, India and China. All with large populations and hungry for growth, they are already reshaping global commerce and they have the potential to change it even more. In this issue of

The Banker

we focus on all four. With international banks engrossed by China, our cover story looks at the best banks to buy and provides a Top 50 of Chinese banks. The Bric countries have large, young populations to drive this growth, with many concentrated in major cities, wealth generators that these are.The growing prosperity of the Bric economies will be largely down to a rapidly emergent and expanding middle class. Improving domestic consumption should complement export and investment strengths, and provide more long-term growth.The numbers of Bric residents whose incomes exceed $3,000 (consistent with entry into the middle class in the emerging markets region) should almost double between 2006 and 2009.By 2015, more than 800 million people across the four economies should have crossed this threshold – exceeding the current total population of the US, Western Europe and Japan combined. This should affect many industry sectors, including mobile-phone operators, computers, automobiles, etc. Rising incomes will also lead to increased numbers of high-net-worth individuals.Another factor supporting these markets is corporate profitability. Corporate profits in Bric companies has been consistently positive over the past decade, driven largely by corporate restructuring, reduced levels of borrowing and improvements in the quality of corporate governance.

In future, provided the recent problems in the credit market do not affect global growth in a significant manner, we believe that Brazil should continue to perform well despite the short-term volatility. Valuations are not stretched, and diversification has been increasing with new companies coming to the market.Meanwhile, India's stock market has reached very high levels. We expect Indian GDP and corporate earnings growth to slow as we enter 2008. We will be watching for fiscal and monetary policy initiatives to keep inflation under control. Although positively positioned for the long term, the Indian market is likely to remain volatile in the short term.Chinese equity valuations have moved up in recent months, but we believe the higher valuations are justified given the better earnings-growth outlook. The currency appreciation, mergers and acquisitions, and implementation of management incentive plans, as well as a tax cut in 2008, should support Chinese equities. A negative is China's huge and rising trade surplus with the US and Europe.Finally, Russian equities suffered in the August markets' turmoil, and with no strong performance earlier this year to cushion the blow, many Russian stocks have been left on modest valuations. For example, Gazprom and Lukoil are on relatively low valuations, even though both companies have a longer estimated life of oil resources than their Brazilian counterpart Petrobras.The oil price, which is a key driver of Russian equities, is unlikely just to collapse, although for some stocks, the market has been trading as if this were the case.

Forecasts that the nominal GDP of the BRICs will virtually treble between 2006-2012 to US$15.4trn, with combined exports of US$3.6trn boosting domestic growth and creating

a whole new generation of consumers. At a time when growth is slowing in Europe and the US, the BRICs are a uniquely compelling growth opportunity for companies able to penetrate these largely virgin markets.

The economies of China and India, whose recent growth has been triggered by investment and exports of manufactured goods, are vastly different from resource-fuelled Russia and, to a lesser extent, Brazil. Consequently, any strategy to exploit the growth of the BRICs must take into account the unique risks faced in each - for example, the dangers to oil price stability for Russia, and the immaturity of financial markets and inflationary pressures for China.

FACTORS LEAD TO GROWTH IN BRIC COUNTRIES

Globalization and growth

Worldwide demand for energy and other commodities, the outsourcing phenomenon, and widespread access to global capital have helped fuel the BRIC countries' growth. India dominates service outsourcing, Brazil and Russia have vast energy and mineral resources, and China has developed into the world's manufacturing plant. India's economy is growing at 8.5% a year, and China's at more than 10.5%, and a combined GDP of BRIC countries is US$5.2 trillion in 2006.

Huge populations, future buyers

Together, the BRIC countries represent 42% of the world's population, These leading emerging and rapidly-growing economies represented a total market of 2.7 billion people.That number represents enormous untapped future purchasing power. It gives BRIC countries the potential for even more rapid expansion if their economies continueto develop and the benefits reach a greater percentage of their populations.

Reduced reliance on foreign debt

Growth has helped BRIC countries pay down loans incurred during previous economic crises, though the potential for default on that debt could still present an investment risk.

Riding the roller coaster

Despite the recent success of these regions--or because of it--money managers are divided on how long the rise of emerging markets can continue without a significant correction.Because commodities are so important to the BRIC economies, any slowdown in worldwide growth and therefore demand could have a significant impact on investments there. Other risks exist as well. All four countries have experienced political instability, currency fluctuations, and/or economic problems. Investors who were affected won't soon forget Russia's 1998 economic crisis or Brazil's bouts with rampant inflation in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Also, economic growth rates don't necessarily translate directly into stock market returns; until the last year or so, China's stock market suffered serious multiyear losses.

Market Trends, Challenges & Opportunities

1)Across BRIC countries, the food and grocery (F&G) segment is clearly driving retail growth. For eg, retail food sales dominate the total retail market in Brazil, accounting for almost 54 percent of the total retail sales, while Russia is the fastest growing retail food sales market in the world, with the potential to again double in size by 2008.

2)The prevalence of English as a language of communication to a very great extent facilitates material sourcing and business communication. While India and Russia pose no problems in this regard, Brazil and China present communication problems for foreign companies.

3)The importance of governments that are quick on decision-making and passing liberal trade laws cannot be emphasised enough. In China, for instance, being a non-democratic country makes it easier for foreign investors to do business sans bureaucratic red-tapism (in comparison to a democratic country like India), the obvious reason being that the political establishment is not directly accountable to the people.

4)Growing urbanisation and metropolitan saturation is leading to the expansion of retail formats and investment opportunities towards tier-II cities and rural hubs across all four countries.

5)Continued economic reforms together with the growth of organised retail (especially in the F&G segment) has led to growing rural incomes, triggering off far-reaching, social impacts. The upcoming ‘Golden Quadrilateral' plan for roadways in India, which is to connect the four cities of Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai, will have massive economic and social repercussions on rural and semi-rural clusters along the vast network. In China too, the government plans to create a rural retail network covering 70 percent of all villages by 2008.

6)Apart from F&G, personal care, consumer durables and electronics seem to be other popular consumption segments, especially among the rising middle classes with their rising incomes and changing consumption patterns.

7)‘Localisation' of goods and services is extremely important for all global companies planning an entry into the BRIC markets. These are all very vast and diverse nations with multiple traditions and aspiration levels that need to be tackled intelligently. 8)A non-economic, intangible market factor among these emerging economies happens to be a rising sense of national pride that needs to be very sensitively addressed by all foreign companies intending to set up businesses here. 9)Another common challenge across all BRIC markets is the near absence of infrastructure problems

COUNTRY ANALYSIS

INDIA

Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkic in the 12th were followed by those of European traders, beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Indian armed forces in the British army played a vital role in both World Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons testing in 1998 caused Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. The dispute between the countries over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002. Despite impressive gains in economic investment and output, India faces pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife.

Languages:

English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 21 other official languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanscrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language.

SLEPT ANALYSIS

India: Rising internal issues may de-stabalize the well placed reforms

Declining in influence, Indian National Congress still holds the key to political stabilityGaining the support of national and regional parties makes it difficult for a single-party government to be formed at the center. Political stability in India is threatened by the Kashmir dispute and other internal issues. India's current position in the global arena is reflective of its political and economic development over the past two decades.

Doubts over sustainability of the current rapid economic growth continues to plague the sub-continent

India has registered robust economic growth over the recent past which has put it in a relatively strong economic position. However, doubts over the sustainability of this growth continue to plague the economy. Infrastructure holds the key to sustain current levels of economic growth. The government has adopted a liberal approach towards foreign investment in most sectors.

Recent economic development raises new social issues

Changing social and demographic make-up of the economy is presenting new opportunities as well as challenges Social dimensions of poverty and inequality need to be tackled along side economic development The social infrastructure in place is not sufficient to meet the needs of a burgeoning population.

India registers an increasing technological presence globally

Large talent pools, the development of required infrastructure and incentives provided by state governments are attracting investment in the ICT sector. There is evidence of increasing technological capability and learning among Indian firms. A growing number of MNC's have been setting up offshore development centers and R&D facilities in India since the 1990s. Despite the impressive performance, there is a huge scope for improvement in the software sector.

Steps have been taken to improve the legal system though lot still remains

Initiatives have been taken to strengthen the judicial system. Other indicators of legal health see only marginal improvement.

Environmental concerns remain buried under economic and social problems

Polluting industries and agents yet to be checked. The supply of water for direct consumption, irrigation purposes and commercial purposes still remains an issue Demographic and economic changes bring new dimensions to environmental concerns.

Eye on India

India's imminent urbanisation process has implications for demand for housing, urban infrastructure, location of retail, and demand for consumer durables. The on-stream infrastructure development will drive growth in the transportation sector, spur demand for vehicles, increase real estate values along the “Golden Quadrilateral” corridor, and potentially boost construction of suburban homes as people escape congested cities. Plus, it will open up thousands of villages en route to a global audience and effectively integrate them with the growing Indian economy. ? Growth of the Retail market, to a great extent, is the dependent on the size of the country's consuming class and the rate of growth of GDP, especially disposable incomes. ? India is the world's second most populous country and its GDP growth is likely to surpass that of China by 2015.

51Due作为专业的留学教育辅导机构,专业辅导essay 代写 assignment代写 paper代写 论文代写,自2004年至今,坚持以学生为中心,全天候服务,为海外留学生完成了数万篇以上的论文,以优质的英国代写服务赢得留学生的信赖,有代写需求,可以咨询Q800020041哦。

51Due网站原创范文除特殊说明外一切图文著作权归51Due所有;未经51Due官方授权谢绝任何用途转载或刊发于媒体。如发生侵犯著作权现象,51Due保留一切法律追诉权。-xz

 

 

我们的优势

  • 05年成立,已帮助上万人
  • 24小时专业客服
  • 团队成员都毕业于全球著名高校
  • 保证原创,支持检测

英国站