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英国论文代写精选:Pseudoscience is not bad science

2017-04-28 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:更多范文

本篇英国论文代写讲了物理学中有几个理论是伪科学。伪科学的危害相当大。这可能浪费了几代人的时间和精力,更不用说钱了。随着科学技术的发展,一些理论真的是伪科学。例如,在历史上,科学家认为聚水是聚合形式的水。苏联物理学家在20世纪60年代后期报道了这一说法。这是科学辩论的主题,后来发现是伪科学。本篇英国论文代写由51due英国论文代写机构整理,供大家参考阅读。


Pseudoscience is not bad science. Sometime it is only the hereby thought. There are several theories in physic are pseudoscience. The harm of pseudoscience is quite huge. It is likely to waste the many time and vigor of generations, not to mention money. With the development of science and technology, some theories are really acting as pseudoscience. For instance, in history, the scientist thinks that the poly-water is a polymerized form of water. The claim was reported by the Soviet physicist during the late 1960s. It was a scientific debate subjects. It was even cause a fear of "poly-water gap" in the United State. In 1973, it was found that just pseudoscience. Poly-water was not working as the scientist predicted. It is only water with an arbitrary number of common organic compound pollution. Poly-water has generated a compelling argument before it finally overthrown by instrumental and theoretical analysis. This reasons of this pseudoscience claim is not only because the mistake in scientific research, the attitude of people but also have much effect. It greatly interferes with the development of scientific experiments. This pseudoscience claim reminds us that the human guiding the scientific research not a robot. It is difficult to achieve the objective because of the desire of humanity. The findings of poly-water did not tell us the accurate about the chemistry of the water, but it is fundamentally revealed some real characteristics of human psychology. If you find the poly-water, then you want it to be true.

The basic identification of the pseudoscience.

In order to better understand the concepts and the identifications of pseudoscience, it is important to make sure the characteristics of science, as well as the difference and similarities between science and pseudoscience. 

Science is a systematic method of acquiring information. It depends on the idea that the natural world works according to certain principles, and that we can discover those principles through observation and experimentation (Raff, 2016). What we should pay attention is that science is not unique when we need to know of the world we are living in. However, the reason why we respect science so much is that science works so well when we get to know the world. 

Sometime, unscientific beliefs are easy to be located in human’s minds. However, unscientific beliefs cannot be deeply considered such as magic, ghosts, or monsters. We cannot subjectively find the evidence or data supports for unscientific beliefs. Looking at this question from another point of view, unscientific beliefs are totally different than pseudoscience. Pseudoscience tends to be our first thought towards objective things based our life experience or knowledge, especially life experience and knowledge from social media and other easy learning activities. For example, people always obtain information and experience from TV shows. In terms of this situation, a lot of pseudoscience comes to our minds through this enthusiastic way. Sometimes, the director of a TV show would like to give some interesting information in order to catch audiences’ mind even those information is not proved by objective evidence or scientific studies. However, there are also not evidences that can help to certificate those information is wrong. Maybe, some part of those information has been proposed by previous scientists, may it has been acquired by another group of researchers, but it is not accepted under most current standards. In conclusion, both pseudoscience and science can help people to know new world and things, but science is an objective, systematical way to use data, evidence, and studies to state definitions while pseudoscience is based on people’s life experience and knowledge. 

It is very important for students and scholars to identify pseudoscience from science when they are doing real research. What we need to understand at this time is that the goal to identify pseudoscience from science is not to deny pseudoscience, but to better understand each other and make real science better. It is a common knowledge that we cannot understand a total new concept without understand its opposite pole first. For example, if we never know the concepts of “hot”, we still cannot fully understand it until we find out what is “cold”. Similarly, if we want to make sure if a person is tall, we need to know what is short meaning in terms of persons. Thus, it is essential for students and researchers to identify pseudoscience before they could really understand what is science.

In order to identify what is pseudoscience, the first important thing we need to do is to check the source of claim (Raff, 2016). To check the source of claim means we need to make sure where the information is from. Is it from TV series or newspapers? Is it from research publications or study books? Based on Raff (2016), standard scientific publications need to have clear citation, in which it shows audience who is the author and where as well as when it is published. Another important factor to identify pseudoscience is to make sure is the publication from a journal. The reason for scientific publication on journal is that scientific journal will be reviewed by peers, a process based on the simple idea that only experts are qualified to evaluate the work of other experts (Raff, 2016). 

However, only understanding to identify publications from a scientific journal is far away from enough, because there are always various fake science journals. Thus, to learn how to identify a faked science journal is also essential when identify pseudoscience from science. The method to identify a science journal from a fake one is a lot. Fro example, we can search the origin of the journal or search it on the Internet to make sure the very resources are legitimate.

Besides understanding how to identify pseudoscience from science by identifying scientific journal as well as identifying scientific journal from faked ones, there are also other important factors for scholars to identify pseudoscience, in which the publication is not an academic journal. Raff (2016) has written a hierarchy to help audience to identify the value of publication.

From academic journals to YouTube comments, they are made in order from high validity to be identified as science to a lower one. As we all know, it is not reasonable to read Internet comments to learn science. However, in terms of other popular publications such as Blogs and Newspapers, we still need to keep clear mind to identify the validity of publications on them to identify pseudoscience. We need to carefully read Blogs. Sometimes, Blogs are valuable to believe, but please make sure all information you choose to obtain would be cited to appropriate resources. Journalists, even some who specialize in science reporting, get things wrong much more frequently than you might think. So if a news source reports a science finding that you are really interested in, it can be worth checking the journal article they’re basing the report on. Or, alternatively, read several different news reports about the same story. See if they differ, and how (Raff, 2016). Books, as far as I am concerned, are tricky one. Because we cannot use regular standards to judge about books, some books are peered-reviewed, while others are totally not. The only thing we could do is to be 100% skeptical when we see a book citation, even it would be a textbook. 

Besides the origins of the sources, we also need to be cautious towards the content of information when identifying pseudoscience from scientific one. Raff (2016) cited several tips for us.

Firstly, we should be cautious about if the publication is not predictive. As we all know, a great scientific model should be based on various studies, researches, and tests. Also, it needs to be oriented from several highly qualified hypotheses. The theory of evolution, for example, makes certain predictions. The evolutionary relationships between many species was worked out on the basis of fossil evidence, long before DNA was discovered. Now that we’re able to sequence the genomes of these species, we’re finding that many of the predictions were true. In contrast, Intelligent Design (a form of creationism) is not scientific because it doesn’t make any predictions (Raff, 2016). 

Reference

Achermann, E. (2005). Bibliometrics of a controversial scientific literature: Polywater research, 1962-1974. Scientific Journal. 63, 189-208.

Mugaloglu, E. Z. (2014). The Problem of Pseudoscience in Science Education and Implications of Constructivist Pedagogy. Science & Education. 23:829-842.

Pigliucci, M. (2015). Scientism and Pseudoscience: A Philosophical Commentary. Bioethical Inquiry. 12:569-575.

Raff, J. (2016). What’s the difference between science and pseudoscience? Violent Metaphors. 

Wikipedia. (2016). Poly-Water 


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