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英文论文写作中的语法问题

2016-12-23 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:写作技巧

中国留学生用英文进行写作,普遍都会遇到语法问题。他们在参加英语考试的时候,语法部分完全没有问题。可是一旦写作英文论文时,就会不自觉的代入很多习惯性的语法错误,试想这样的论文怎么可能拿到高分呢!下面就给大家总结一下英文论文写作中常见的语法问题,同学们有则改之无则加勉。

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1. 主语和谓语的单数和复数要一致

英语中名词有它的单数和复数形式,动词也有它的单数和复数形式,二者要一致。单数主语(subject)名词要用动词(verb)的单数(singular)形式,复数主语名词要用动词的复数 (plural)形式。我们写中文的不太习惯英语的这种写法,很难做到不假思索地配对,需要特别留心才能不出错误,特别是当主语名词和动词被分开时。试看下面的例句:

A high percentage of peptides that are made of amino acids are present in the sample.

A high percentage才是真正的主语,而不是邻近的amino acids, 所以应该用单数形式。

宜改为:A high percentage of peptides that are made of amino acids is present in the sample.

让事情更复杂的是英语名词被分为不同的种类,其中的一类叫集合名词。它既可以当单数用词也可以当复数用。集合名词当整体来讲时是单数,每个成员作为个体时用复数。

2、修饰语同主语名词关系上要一致

当用动名词、分词短句和不定式短句作修饰语时,修饰语中的动词要同主句中的主语名词关系上要一致。

科技杂志论文中有这种语法错误的情况较多。严格来讲这只是种语法错误,一般不影响对句子的内容的理解,所以很多作者不太注意。编辑和阅稿人有时也没有严格要求改正。比如下面就是Nature杂志2006年第439卷中的一个例子。

Using the enhancer GAL4/UAS expression system, short-term memory traces of aversive and appetitive olfactory conditioning have been assigned to output synapses of subsets of intrinsic neurons of the mushroom bodies.

1) 动名词

After finishing the purification, the activity of the isolated compound was then studied.

We or I是动名词finishing 形式上的主语,同主句的主语activity不一致。

宜改为:After purification was finished, the activity of the isolated compound was then studied.

或:After finishing the purification, we studied the activity of the isolated compound.

Treated with the new drug, the blood cholesterol levels of participants were lowered by an average of 30%.

宜改为:Treated with the new drug, participants showed an average of 30% decrease in their blood cholesterol levels.

2) 分词短句

The iron concentration was determined using the Fenton reaction method.

The iron concentrationusing the Fenton reaction method关系上不一致。

宜改为:The iron concentration was determined by the Fenton reaction method.

或:We determined the iron concentration using the Fenton reaction method.

When measuring the atmospheric level of carbon dioxide, air samples from a remote place, such as an island, is preferred.

宜改为:When the atmospheric level of carbon dioxide is measured, air samples from a remote place, such as an island, is preferred.

3) 不定式短句

To further investigate the potential role of biking in causing infertility, an expanded population of biking athletes was surveyed.

不定式短语的形式主语是we or I,同主句主语population不一致。

宜改为:To further investigate the potential role of biking in causing infertility, we surveyed an expanded population of biking athletes.

To confirm the diagnosis, blood test was ordered.

宜改为:To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor ordered blood test.

3.主语和主语的行动(谓语)在逻辑上要一致

由于一些中文和英文的表达方式不同,把中文直接翻译成相应的英文会不讲 . 一个经常被引用的语句是“price is cheap ”。中文可以说价格便宜,但英文只能说价格高或低。物品可以说cheap or expensive. 用中文的表达方式来写英文,会出现主语和主语的行动在逻辑上不一致。在写一个句子时要注意行动的真正主语名词是什么。下面是一些例子:

The highest antibiotic production was obtained at 48 h.

不是production而是production yield.

宜改为:The highest antibiotic production yield was obtained at 48 h.

The scavenging activity for hydroxyl radicals was based on Fenton reaction.

不是activity而是assay of activity

宜改为:The assay of scavenging activity for hydroxyl radicals was based on Fenton reaction.

The pharmacological compounds of ginseng were identified.

药物活性化合物应该是:pharmacologically active compounds.

宜改为:The pharmacologically active compounds of ginseng were identified.

4、代名词和其代理的先行词要一致

代名词和其代理的先行词要在人称,单数或复数,和性别上一致。一些常见的代词是:he, his; she, her; it, its (单数); they, their, these, those (复数); that, this (单数). 比如下面的例句中,compoundstheir一致,proteinit一致。

Many related compounds were synthesized and their antivirus activities were studied. Growth hormone is a protein. It promotes human body growth.

下面的例句中,the 应该用 their 取代 .

The potential antioxidant capacity of compound A and compound B could be deduced from the protective effects against oxidative stresses.

宜改为:The potential antioxidant capacity of compound A and compound B could be deduced from their protective effects against oxidative stresses.

用代名词时,除了要保持一致外,还要避免代理不清的情况出现,以免不清楚它们到底指什么而引起误解。

The crude sample was dissolved in water and extracted with organic solvent. It was then evaporated to yield the product.

Itorganic layer还是指water layer?不明确,最好不用it.

宜改为:The crude sample was dissolved in water and extracted with organic solvent. The organic layer was then evaporated to yield the product.

During meal hormones are released after which blood flow increases in the stomach.

Which既可以代表meal也可以代表hormones, 容易产生误解 .

宜改为:During meal hormones are released. After their release stomach blood flow increases.

5、位置的强调作用

在英语写作中,若要强调某件事情,就把它放在句子的前面。中文写作中,有关句子的条件,时间等的修饰句都是放在前面,而主句总是放在后面。而英文中即可以把条件或修饰句放在前面,也可以放在后面。放在前面就表示你要强调修饰句的条件。比如:

Before the hurricane arrived, most of the people have moved out.

Most of the people have moved out before the hurricane arrived.

在英语中两种位置关系都可以。前者强调在hurricane来之前,后者强调moved out. 而在中文中,只有一种说法,反过来说“大多数人都离开在hurricane来之前”就不对了。按中文的位置关系直译成英文,往往会不确切。同样按英文的位置关系直译成中文也是怪怪的。我上小学的孩子回家来喊“我要吃冰激凌今天,我没吃好长时间了”,就是英文“I want ice cream today. I have not eaten it for a long time.”的直接翻译。

科技写作中,一般还是把主句先写出来,除非你想强调修饰的是条件。

Through scavenging free radicals, antioxidants play an important role in protecting against complex diseases.

宜改为:Antioxidants play an important role in protecting against complex diseases through scavenging free radicals.

In microbial fermentation, phosphorus is commonly the major growth-limiting nutrient.

宜改为:Phosphorus is commonly the major growth-limiting nutrient in microbial fermentation.

主动句中事情的执行者(作者)放在前面,有强调事情的执行者(作者)的意思,而不是要研究的事物。被动句强调要研究的事物,这也是为什么科技论文中被动句用得比较多的原因之一。

We studied their effects on cell growth. 强调We.

Their effects on cell growth were studied. 强调Their effects.

6、修饰词和被修饰词要邻近

科技写作要求严谨,明确。为了严格定义一个事物,往往要加上限制性的修饰词或短句.比如描写实验用的mice时,一般不会只说mice,而是用类似“NCI-H23 tumor bearing female athymic nude mice”的描述。前面有5个修饰词来定义研究用的mice这时一般把最窄的定义写在最前面,最广的定义写在后面.修饰语要靠近同被修饰的对象。因修饰语和被修饰的词被隔开,而造成意思混乱的情况很多。下面是一些例子。

Inhibition of Acid B on xanthine oxidase was also reported.

Inhibition of 后面应紧跟xanthine oxidase,而不是Acid B, 隔开后句子就很难读 .

宜改为:Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by Acid B was also reported.

The chelating activities for ferrous ion of the Acid B were assessed.

The chelating activities后面应紧跟Acid B, 而不是ferrous ion.

宜改为:The chelating activities of the Acid B for ferrous ion were assessed.

Reducing power represents the electron donating capacity, which may serve as a significant indicator of potential antioxidant activity.

以上就是给大家总结的关于英文论文写作中需要注意的语法使用情况,希望能够帮助到大家今后对于英文论文正确的语法使用。

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