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英文论文写作要准确使用标点符号

2017-11-20 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:写作技巧

对于英文论文来说,细节是非常重要的。毕竟国外大学对于学术论文的要求是非常严格的,容不得半点错误。而标点符号是英文论文写作当中最容易被忽视的细节,所以大家在写作的时候一定要规范使用。下面就给大家讲解一下。

Capital letters

在现代英语中,很难准确地给出使用大写字母的规则,因为在现代英语中,使用它们的趋势更少。但是,在下列情况下,应该使用它们:

a)句子中的第一个词:In the beginning

bdays和月份:Friday 21 July

c)国籍的词:France and the French

d)人名/地名:Dr Martin Lee from Sydney

e)书的标题(只有主要单词):Power and the State

f)学科:She studied Biology and Mathematics

g)组织的名字:Sheffield Hallam University

Apostrophe (’)

这是最令人困惑的英语标点符号之一。它们主要用于两种情况:

a)显示收缩(contractions):Hes the leading authority on Hegel.

b)与所有格(possessives):

The professor’s secretary (singular)

Students’ marks (plural words ending in “s”)

Women’s rights (for irregular plurals)

Semicolons (;)

当一个逗号不足够,一个句号太过了的时候,分号用来显示两个连接的短语之间的联系:

Twenty people were interviewed for the first study; thirty-three for the second.

Nobody questioned the results; they were quite conclusive.

分号也被用来在一个复杂的结构中划分条目,就像在多个引用中一样:

(Maitland, 2006; Rosenor, 1997; New Scientist, 2006b; University of Michigan, 2000).

Colons (:)

(a)介绍explanationsThe meeting was postponed: the Dean was ill.

(b)开始一个listThree aspects were identified: financial, social and ethical.

(c)介绍quotationAs the Duchess of Windsor said:You can never be too rich or too thin.

Commas(,)

这些是最常见的标点符号之一,但也最难提供指导。逗号的使用在一定程度上是个人风格的问题。把逗号看作是给读者一个短暂的停顿,让他们有机会理解一大块text,这是很有用的。过度使用会减慢读者的速度。但同样地,缺少逗号也会让人confused。一些逗号用法的例子是:

a)在介绍性词汇或短语之后:

However, more cases should be considered before reaching a conclusion.

b)在例子或评论中:

Certain crops, for instance wheat, are susceptible to diseases. Nationalism, it is widely recognised, has a positive and negative side.

c)连词:

Three hundred people were interviewed, but only half the responses could be used.

d)在列表中:

Tomatoes, beans, cabbages and potatoes were all genetically modified in turn.

Quotation marks/inverted commas(“. . .”/‘. . .’)

(a) 用单引号来强调一个词:

The word ‘factory’ was first used in the seventeenth century.

The Swedish ‘third way’ or the welfare state . . .

引用其他作家的名言:

Goodwin’s (1977) analysis of habit indicates that, in general, ‘It will be more difficult to reverse a trend than to accentuate it.’

显示直接引语:

‘Can anyone find the answer?’ asked the lecturer.

较长的引文通常是缩进的(也就是说有更大的范围)/或被设置成较小的类型。

(b) 双引号用来显示引号内的引语(嵌套引语)

As Kauffman remarked: ‘his concept of “internal space” requires close analysis’.

注:美国英语使用双引号来显示标准报价。

(c) 在参考文献中,引用标记用于文章和章节的名称,但是书籍或期刊标题通常使用斜体:

Russell, T. (1995) ‘A future for coffee?’ Journal of Applied Marketing 6: 14–17.

Full stops(.)

这些都是用来显示句子的结尾的:

The first chapter provides a clear introduction to the topic.

当它们是单词的第一部分时,它们也被用于特定的缩写词:

govt./Jan./p. 397

但是,不要使用缩写词,例如:

BBC/UN/VIP

Others

连字符(-)用于某些词,如复合名词和某些结构:

A well-researched, thought-provoking book.

Her three-year-old daughter is learning to read.

感叹号()和问号(?)

‘Well!’ he shouted, ‘who would believe it?’

括号或圆括号()可以用来提供额外的细节,而不影响主要思想的流向:

Relatively few people (10–15 per cent) were literate in sixteenth-century Russia.

希望以上这些标点符号使用举例能够帮到大家。

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