欢迎来到51Due,请先 | 注册
关注我们: 51due论文代写二维码 51due论文代写平台微博
英国论文代写,英国essay代写知名品牌微信

Essay代写范文

为您解决留学中生活、学习、工作的困难、疑惑
释放自我

The relevance of carbon accounting to financial-finance作业代写

2017-01-11 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

英国finance作业代写精选范文:“The relevance of carbon accounting to financial”,这篇文章主要讲述了重新发展经济学的本质说,碳排放核算发挥了在国际活动中一个很重要的角色,因为它是由国家遵守京都议定书。此外,碳会计也是一种更好的措施以及机会成本对自然资源的消耗和污染的影响。

对财务会计背景的碳核算根据UNFCCC的相关性,京都协议是一个与联合国气候变化框架公约的国际协议。

The relevance of carbon accounting to financial accounting Background According to UNFCCC, The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted..The relevance of carbon accounting to financial accounting Background According to UNFCCC, “The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005.” “Under Kyoto Protocol, many industrialized nations made binding commitments to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 5.2 percent below their 1990 levels during the 2008-2012 timeframe” (Dutta & Lawson, 2008).Redefining Progress-The Nature of Economics asserted, Carbon emissions accounting has played a very important role in international activity, as it is the way by which nations comply with the Kyoto Protocol. Besides, carbon accounting also is a means to better measure an organisation’s environmental impacts as well as opportunity costs related to the depletion of natural resources and the effects of pollution (Dutta & Lawson, 2008).Having ratified the Kyoto Protocol, the EU adopted a cap-and-trade trading system by which carbon emission allowances are traded in free market (Dutta & Lawson, 2008). Carbon emission then becomes a financially material commodity which can be traded in the carbon market, so there is a stronger need to properly define, measure, account for, audit and report its value in the consistent way similar to the other physical commodities and financial instruments (Aldersgate Group, 2007).The IASB issued IFRIC 3 on ‘Emission Rights’ in December 2004, but then it was withdrawn in June 2005. The main reason for withdrawal was the application of IFRIC 3 created measurement mismatches between assets (Emission Allowance and liabilities (Provision for Emission) (2005). Though the IASB and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) have launched a joint project on carbon reporting and carbon emission accounting models, they have not published a conclusion so far (KPMG, 2008). 

IASB (2010) noted that, following the withdrawal of IFRIC 3 on Emission Rights, there was a risk of various accounting practices for emission trade scheme that would weaken the comparability and usefulness of financial statements. ACCA (2009) also pointed out that, a number of different methodologies and approaches to measure and account for carbon emission are used by different disclosing companies because of no specific or common carbon reporting or accounting standards, so comparability of carbon disclosure among data setters is difficult. Besides, the current carbon reporting is made on a voluntary basis without uniform standards (Dutta & Lawson, 2008). Consequently, many companies still are confused about the appropriate accounting treatment complying with both International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). Therefore, accounting for GHG remains a challenge, in which market participants are going to wait for a clear guidance from accounting standards bodies (Deloitte, 2007). Though accounting standards bodies have not provided generally accepted protocols for carbon emission or emission trading, ISO launched ISO 14064 – greenhouse gases standard in 2002 and published it in 2006 as a solution to address the above problems (ISO, 2006).ISO 14064 consists of three standards, as an integrated set of tools aimed at reducing GHG emission and guidance for quantifying, reporting, monitoring and verification of GHG (ISO, 2007)

51Due作为专业的留学教育辅导机构,专业辅导essay代写-assignment代写-paper代写-report代写-biology论文代写-finance作业代写,自2004年至今,坚持以学生为中心,全天候服务,为海外留学生完成了数万篇以上的论文,以优质的英国论文代写服务赢得留学生的信赖,有代写需求,以及有英国law课程辅导需求的,可以咨询QQ800020041哦。

51Due网站原创论文除特殊说明外一切图文著作权归51Due所有;未经51Due官方授权谢绝任何用途转载或刊发于媒体。如发生侵犯著作权现象,51Due保留一切法律追诉权。-L

我们的优势

  • 05年成立,已帮助上万人
  • 24小时专业客服
  • 团队成员都毕业于全球著名高校
  • 保证原创,支持检测

英国站