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Essay代写:Australia's Social security model

2017-12-07 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Australia's Social security model,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了澳大利亚的社会保障模式。澳大利亚的社会保障模式是社会救济和个人储蓄的混合模式。无论如何,单一的养老保障制度肯定是不足的,其中一个缺点就是,强制性储蓄制度的积累不能解决所有的养老问题。此时,有必要引入其他辅助系统,同时使用各种老年保障系统来弥补单一系统的缺陷。

Social security model,社会保障模式,英国代写,essay代写,代写

In Oceania, Australia is known as a coordinated national economic and social welfare, which is inseparable from the unique mode of social security in Australia. Australian social security model as the core of social assistance to poverty alleviation as a policy objective, the state government's full support.

Introduction to Social Security:

Australia is a federal state with more than 1800 million population, consists of 650 local governments by the federal government and six state and two territory governments. The social security system in Australia began in 1909 as the core of social assistance, complemented by some of the social insurance scheme (mainly the mandatory occupational pension and voluntary pension savings plans), and universal health care plan, including old-age security, health care , family allowances, disability protection, preferential pensions, housing subsidies, immigration assistance, disaster relief grants and community service. In Australia, all social security benefits, in addition to Child benefits are based on income surveys, all allowances are to implement a single rate, and paid directly by the total treasury.

Social Security Mode:

Australia's social security model is a hybrid model of the social welfare relief and personal savings. In any case, a single old-age security system may be inadequate, one drawback is that, for example, the accumulation of mandatory savings system (whether it is state-owned or private) can not solve all of the pension problem. At this time, it is necessary to introduce other ancillary system, while using a variety of old age security system to compensate for the defects of a single system. Mixed mode of social welfare and personal savings, this is less than complementary of these two models adopted. It's characterized by individual savings-based pension, social welfare and relief, supplemented by a pension system. The main use of this model in Australia, and achieved good results. Personal savings and pension system introduced in Australia in 1992. The introduction of the purpose is to ultimately reduce to rely on social welfare relief and increase savings, thereby increasing investment. Through the accumulation of capital and increase investment in order to speed up economic growth. To achieve these objectives, so that people save more, the personal savings of the old-age pension may be exempt from tax by the private fund company pension. The old-age pension from the mandatory savings and voluntary savings. To retirement, people can once all the pensions year by year. By the method of the tax system, the government is trying to encourage people year by year.

The main features of this model are: the government only for a specific object to provide social security, mainly those living in poverty, and the rest of the members of society through the market channels for personal protection, and thus this model is a typical market-based security system. Social benefits and public subsidies are the principal means adopted by the Government.

Formation of reasons:

Compared with Western countries, the pace of development of the Australian welfare system is rather slow. Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), released by multiple sets of data show that the growth rate of the 1970, 1955, in its member countries, compared to gross national product growth and revenue growth rates, Australia used for welfare funding is the most slow. Australia in the early 1960s and the mid-1970s for social security and welfare funds accounted for 9.6% and 12.8% of the national GNP at that time, lower than the average of the 18 member states, ie, 13.2% and 18.8% column last 3 of the welfare system and the complete extent of much inferior place in other countries. Although its benefit in expanding the scope, but there are still many blind spots. Labor market, for example, in Australia employed population in 1990, 20% is difficult to enjoy the employment insurance odd jobs over the same period the proportion of the United States and Japan were 16.9% and 17.6%. Reasons contributing to this situation:

Historically, Australia is a newcomer to the capitalist countries, the level of capitalist development and maturity of less Western countries, the welfare system is a product of maturation and development of Western capitalism.

On social conditions in Australia, the rich and the poor and the poor little higher degree of social well-off, therefore, the urgency of building a welfare system as Europe and the United States.

On the Australian welfare system itself, which is based on the pattern of the British welfare system, lessons learned and cautious exploration, combined with country-specific actual situation, and gradually built up.

This regard to avoid many mistakes and losses, but on the other hand, lead to the slow pace of its development. Formation history of the Australian welfare system date from the early 20th century, there is already a century. Australian social reform and modernization of the main contents and characteristics of one, it is accompanied by the maturity of the nation's economic development, the evolution of political and social needs continuous improvement, expansion, deepening, the amendment and supplement, and gradually formed. improve and establish. Australian national consciousness in this process, the localization abandon shows a great role, so that the original Australians regarded as "exotic" Western welfare system gradually rooted in the continent of Australia, and thus form suitable for the Australian community, with Australia characteristics, social system and to promote the transformation of Australian society. Its people's behavior norms and values, the realignment of the relationship between various social interest groups, as well as the entire nation and the historical process of arising is profound and immeasurable.

The revelation of the Australian social security system

The pattern and level of social security and national strength, national conditions and adapt. Existing universal, high-welfare social security in Australia and over the years, the country's national strength, national conditions and development and changes in the basic phase of adaptation. A small population, the country strong is a major feature of Australian, and this is in fact the main basis for Shigao Fu Lee. Compared with Australia, China's a great contrast. First, population, highest in the world, is 66 times that of Australia. Resident status is complex, agriculture and non-agricultural sub, the elderly, faster than the major population of the aging process. Look at the comprehensive national strength, China's per capita GDP is only 6231 yuan, less than Australia's twentieth. Additionally, China's urban-rural divide, the larger and agriculture, between China's social security model can only be a multi-level, urban and rural areas there are other, while not a popular type of security, protection of subsistence, rather than the welfare and protection. This is social security with Chinese characteristics.

Adhere to the country, units and individuals jointly responsible for, the "trinity" of the social security system. The last hundred years of history of Australian social security system, social security payments, the supply side, taking on everything from the federal budget, federal and state government classification burden to the federal government, state government and employers, employees share the burden, after a number of twists and turns, past the various difficulties to become the major milestones of the Australian social security system reform, and is making efforts to promote and perfect. China's social security system reform, although the time is short, but the social security payments by the government, enterprises (units) and individuals share the burden of the mechanism is hard to come by, and effective ways of head in the right direction, you should stick to it, to be improved . In the future, should gradually reduce the proportion of investment of the government budget, and gradually increase the proportion of the burden of individuals, enterprises (units). As long as the affordability and financial resources, national strength and personal, social adaptation, the proportion of the Government's burden a little higher or a little lower, will not affect the status and role of government in Social Security. Not to the level of government investment ratio to determine the functions of government regulation and supervision of social security. In particular, reduced the proportion of government investment, we must pay more attention to and strengthen government supervision.

Strengthen the regulatory capacity of the financial department of social security. Social security laws and regulations, policy formulation, management and supervision of financial accounting and security funds, the Australian financial sector has played an important role. In the "long" management, the financial sector not only shows the important functions and roles, and social security spending accounted for a high proportion of government budget expenditure, it is rare. China's social security system reform, has taken a welcome step. The country's financial system lead to set up a special social security institutions; at the central level, has established a special Ministry of Labor and Social Security, to break the situation of the social protection of labor, civil affairs, personnel, health "separatist". Ancillary, and below the provincial level will also make the appropriate reforms. It is noteworthy that, at present, our government financial regulation on social security is not strong, the proportion of social security expenditure in the government budget is only about 10%, only quite a quarter of Australia. Not be overlooked is that China's current social insurance fund expenditures, has entered a "crisis" period, pension, unemployment, laid-off workers the basic living security is "rest on our laurels" in many places difficult to sustain. In the future, must be "timely and in full" social security expenditure truly placed in government budgets at all levels of an important strategic position, attach great importance to be taken seriously.

To accelerate the social security legislation. Australian social security Dafa, there are dozens of individual social security regulations, the amount of text is more than six years ago, to be changed 4-12 times a year. In contrast, the legal construction of China's social security has lagged far behind, "France" there is no law there is no strict it up with nothing. Starting from the development and the reality of our political, economic and social systems, in establishing a sound social security legislation should grasp these points: First, the size of simultaneously advancing the country. It is necessary to accelerate the social security legislation of the Basic Law, but also attach importance to and strengthen the building of the local laws and regulations, the best from top to bottom. First started, and then perfect. Subjective and objective conditions of social security legislation in our country after years of reform and development, mature, and imminent. Should be introduced in advance, to be revised and improved, is not guaranteed. Third, should be "rough" should not be "fine". Too perfectionist, fine, and strict, is not conducive to an early introduction, and even possible long-term "pull" down. However, not shoddy, full of loopholes. Focused, from point to plane. Such as pension, unemployment, medical social insurance, both hot and difficult, but also the reform of the current focus, such as a breakthrough of great significance to the entire social security legislation.

Establishing a sound social security oversight mechanisms. Learn from the experience of Australia, China to establish a social security oversight mechanisms should be noted that the following four aspects: First, to establish the supervision of the organs of state power. Special social security committee set up within the NPCSC to give the corresponding functions. The second is to strengthen the social insurance fund levy, payment, and accumulated, operation, preservation and appreciation of the supervision. The third is to strengthen financial supervision and auditing. Finance and audit departments of the insurance fund organizations in national and local financial revenue and expenditure, capital management and the operations on a regular basis to inspect, audit, and report results to the level of government. Fourth, strengthen the supervision of the social security system, evaluation system to eliminate false impersonator phenomenon of social welfare. Such as the creation of false the impersonator monitoring, assessment procedures, protection of property, income, employment situation, the status of the assessment, evaluation, and not enough conditions to stop the relief, and given some punishment.

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