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Essay代写:Trade relations between China and Australia

2017-12-07 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Trade relations between China and Australia,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了中国与澳大利亚的贸易关系。自从1972年中澳建交以来,双边贸易发展迅速,中澳贸易进入了新的阶段,中国成为澳大利亚第一大贸易伙伴,是彼此的最大的进出口来源。中澳之间在经贸往来中不断发展,但在这个时期也存在诸多问题。

China and Australia,中澳贸易关系,英国代写,essay代写,代写

China and Australia trade correlation analysis Abstract: since the 1972 China and Australia diplomatic relations since, the rapid development of bilateral trade, the sino-australian trade has entered into a new period, China has become the first largest trading partner, Australia and the biggest export destination largest source of imports. Between China and Australia in the economic and trade contacts in the continuous development, but in this period, there are also many problems, sino-australia relationship in the asymmetric dependence and push forward the establishment of the Macao free trade area in the process we ran into some problems and disputes will cause serious influence on China, understanding and very good treatment to solve these problems, we become the research of the key..

China and Australia trade relations review Australia as part of the British commonwealth, after the founding of the alliance that Britain, but at this time of diplomatic relations in Australia almost in isolation. At the end of the 1960 s, in the early 70 s, the international situation and the American position of strength notable changes have taken place, the situation of the world changes the props to the sino-australian relations change. Although the two countries in Australia this period have no formal diplomatic relations, but China and Australia's business in the early eighteenth century has been in folk. In Australia in 1941 and at the time of the kuomintang government established diplomatic relations.

1950 years trade between Australia only $4.62 million, 1972 years of bilateral trade and only 86.55 million dollars. In 1972, the formal diplomatic relations between the two countries in Australia, marks the diplomatic relations between the relations between the two countries enter a new historical stage.

In China's reform and opening up after determined after state policy, sino-australia between the political continuously strengthen economic and trade exchanges. With the improvement of the relationship between political, economic and trade cooperation between the two countries also have great development. In 1973, the two governments signed trade agreement, two-way trade between the countries for 216 million dollars. In 1981, Australia became the first development aid to China for the country. In 1984, bilateral trade volume increased to 1.183 billion dollars, science and technology, culture and further strengthen cooperation field. In 1986, the two countries have developed ministerial economic joint committee to coordinate economic relations. Although in 1989 China has "six • four" time in Australia after political relations has plunged, Australia also began to sanctions against China.

However, during this period, the economic and trade, culture and technology cooperation still going on. Due to many years in Australia since both sides of the deepening and expanding exchanges, especially the deepening of economic and trade relations that have sino-australian relations back to the past cut each other position, both from the consideration on the main economic bilateral relations, China's reform and opening up of the formation of the huge market and its important status in the Asia Pacific region, can bring huge benefits for Australia. So, since the 1990 s began to enter into the relationship between junior high school Australia rational pragmatic communication.

At this time, Australia's trade center of gravity has also turned to the east Asian region. Meanwhile, European markets and the formation of the north American free trade zone that Australia's more to enhance the cooperation with Asian sense of urgency. In 1997, Australia coalition government published the first "foreign trade white paper", pointed out that Australia has an important partner for the United States to four, Japan, Indonesia, China, and will be the most important Chinese listed as one of foreign relations. 2. China and Australia trade relations of the status quo In 1999, President jiang zemin visits to Australia is diplomatic relations between the two countries, Chinese head of state after the first visit to Australia, announced the establishment of the two countries' top meet regularly system, and on the two countries together build of the 21st century, long-term stability of the healthy development of overall cooperation relationship reached an agreement, for the new development of the relationship between the two countries has the great significance. After again, the two countries signed trade, investment, taxation, culture, science and technology, education, civil aviation and so on a series of agreement. The scope of cooperation from a single trade expanded to include loans, economic aid and technical cooperation, two-way investment, and other forms of various channel, comprehensive economic cooperation. After China's accession to the world trade organization, economic and trade relations between the two countries and realized the development of the breakthrough. In Australia with the gradual development of the trade cooperation, in April 2005, both sides began free trade agreement in the first round of negotiations.

In June 2007, China and Australia free trade area ninth round negotiations held in Beijing. The key services, investment, non-tariff measures, the rules of origin, customs procedures, intellectual property rights, dispute settlement, etc were discussed. Because the services and investment and investment the divide between the two sides is bigger, the negotiations is slow, but the two sides finally reached an agreement still have faith, and trying to find ways to narrow differences. 2009 is the economic relationship with China Australia a defining moment, both countries reached $85 billion two-way trade, accounted for 17% of the total amount of Australia's trade. In June 2010, Australia bilateral trade with China has reached 85 billion us dollars. 3. China and Australia trade development main characteristics In Australia with bilateral political, economic and diplomatic relations improving, bilateral trade developing rapidly, and presents many new features.

First, the rapid growth in trade volume, trade share stability. According to the official statistics, in 2004 China has become Australia's second largest trading partner, bilateral trade reached 21.17 billion us dollars, up 37.4%, and this is the first time China replaced the United States as Australia's second largest export market. In the same year, the Australian exports to China $8.02 billion, up 34.5%; Imports from China $13.15 billion with 40.8% growth rate; $5.13 billion Australia deficit.

According to statistics, China and Australia trade reached 5 billion us dollars, with 24 years, from 5 billion to 10 billion dollars, only six years. And in 2003 in 2004 to in these two short years, China and Australia trade flip, realized another billions of dollars from growth. By 2005, bilateral trade in Australia for $28.438 billion. Among them, the Australian exports to China $121.96, up 51.1%, increased exports frontal in Australia before 15 trading partner is the fastest, export to China accounted for 11.6% of total export amount Macao, China is still in Australia's second export market, second only to Japan. Australia imports from China 16.242 billion us dollars, up 23.7%, imports from China imports 13.7% of its total of, China has become the second import country Australia, second only to the United States. In 2006, Australia of bilateral trade of $34.65 billion, a 21.5% growth from last year, higher than the 7.4% average Australian foreign trade. One Australian exports to China $15.41 billion, an increase of 25.6%, the export to China accounted for 12.5% of total export amount Australia, China ranked Australia's second largest export market, second only to Japan; Australia $19.24 billion, up 18.4%, imports from China accounts for 14.5% of the total value of its exports than in the next 0.6% higher than the United States, China to become Australia first big source of imports. In 2006, Australia trade deficit with China for 3.82 billion us dollars, accounting for 41.4% of the total amount of the macau deficit, fell 4.1%.

According to the Australian bureau of statistics, 2007 years Australia for $44.48 billion bilateral trade, up 28.5%, well above the 11.7% average growth of Australia trade in goods. Among them, the Australian exports to China $20.01 billion, up 30.1%; Since China imported 24.46 billion us dollars, up 27.2%; The deficit $4.45 billion, up 15.4%, China's biggest trading partner for Australia, the second largest export destination and the largest source of imports. In 2008, bilateral trade in Australia for $57.3 billion, an increase of 28.9%, well above the 2.6% average growth of Australia trade in goods. Among them, the Australian exports to China $27.93 billion, up 39.6%; Since China imported 29.38 billion us dollars, up 20.1%; Australia deficit of $1.45 billion, down 67.5%, China is the second largest trading partner, Australia second largest export destination and the largest source of imports. 2009 years of bilateral trade for $61.94 billion Australia, up 8.9%. Among them, the Australian exports to China $33.37 billion, up 21.4%; Since China's imported us $28.57 billion, down 2.8%; $4.8 billion Australia surplus, and last year for the deficit. China's first big trading partner for Australia, largest export destination and the largest source of imports.

While Australia is also China's main trading partners, the only a positive growth. According to Australian trade commission pointed out that this year Australia and China's bilateral trade volume is expected to climb to 100 billion Australian dollars (us $91 billion). At present, Australia and China trade volume last year increased nearly 30% to $86 billion. China is Australia's largest trading partner. Financial crisis over the last year, bilateral trade in Australia still have considerable growth. If the trend is unchanged, the australia-china bilateral trade is expected to be $91 billion. In 2009 Australia to China into the export amount Year-on-year % of total trade amount than % Import 28566-2.8 17.9 Export 33369 21.4 21.7 Second, the import and export of goods strong complementarity structure. Trade between the two countries of the intensity of complementary to each other, which embodies a concentrated export or import party whether products to each other on the import or export products, decided the bilateral trade development potential. On the whole, Australia over vertical division between their forms of trade between the industry to give priority to. The two countries in Australia in resources endowment complementarities of two countries is the foundation of the development of trade relations.

China and Australia in the natural resource endowment and elements on the conditions of great differences. And sparsely populated Australia, rich mineral resources, land resources in production a comparative advantage in labour-intensive products, and more Chinese people, per capita amount of resources rarely, in production labor-intensive products have comparative advantages, this kind of natural complementary form the two countries trade in Australia. A comprehensive trade complementary advantages of the industry depends on industry especially trade complementary to each other. Australia each country with a strong and strong international competitive industry each other is not coincidence, the two countries industry less competitive.

China's export to Australia in textiles, clothing, footwear, food, chemical and mechanical and electrical products, mainly labor-intensive products and a small amount of high-tech products; Australia's exports to major in the iron, wool, alumina, sugar, food, wheat primary product mainly and a small amount of high value-added manufactured goods. China's export to Australia's main are industrial products, and the Australian exports to China is mainly agricultural and mineral resources products. China imported from Australia mainly concentrated in primary products, especially is eating raw material products accounted for 56% of total imports primary products. Manufactured goods, China imported goods from Australia mainly by raw material for classification of manufactured goods, accounting for 60.7% of the total amount of import manufactured goods. Fancy to Australia from long-term bilateral trade goods structure of complementary together closely, and growing in. Between the two countries have 56.52% of the industry has a strong trade complementary, especially in their respective with strong and stronger international competitiveness in the industry, the vast majority are strong trade complementary to each other. Thus, the two countries can infer that comprehensive trade will be strong complementary to each other.

In between the two countries based on Australia important trade partner relations, most of their respective industries, particularly the competitive industry trade complementary strong, comprehensive trade complementary in recent years increased. I think, sino-australia bilateral trade development potential is very great, establish sino-australian free trade area wide prospect. Besides, there are also in Australia trade in their foreign trade status asymmetry, bilateral trade field in expanding, and bilateral trade between the two countries rise to the importance of characteristics, and especially note that in the trade between China and Australia, China has long in the position of the trade deficit, but the situation in 2009 for the first time, change, Australia surplus of $4.8 billion. 4. China and Australia trade problems existing-asymmetric dependencies.

First, the Australian exports to China resource commodities is difficult to replace. Minerals has been Australia on China's export of main products in 2009, exports to 24.51 billion us dollars, up by 27.4% over the previous year, macau to account for 73.4% of China's total exports. The base metal and products is Macao exports to China's second categories of goods, the export volume of $2.12 billion, up 58.3% and, Macao to 6.4% of China's total exports. Textile raw material is Macao exports to China's third categories of goods, the export volume of $1.26 billion, down 8.1% from the previous year. The Australian exports to China less affected by the financial crisis, in addition to the overall export growth fell outside, the iron and other major export commodities have remained stable growth, and with copper, aluminum, steel, etc, metal products export growth even higher than before the crisis. Mineral products, iron ore in Australia's exports to the ownership of an important position in the trade. China's share of the Australian iron ore exports of share more than half.

In addition, many countries in Asia now high-speed economic development period, they also form of iron ore potential export market in Australia. The iron ore consumption and the economic relationship tied directly and the emerging market countries widespread use of the long process of production process of steel, iron ore this makes the economic development of a country that is a very strong rigidity consumer goods. I think, in Australia from the two-way trade between the countries analysis to see: one country to the other country is the importance of trade, not only depends on the growing trade volume speed, more important is the asymmetry of the trade relationship between the dependent degree, especially not symmetrical fragile degree. Measure asymmetric relationship of trade vulnerability index is mainly one country to the other country of import and export commodities market alternative.

The stronger the alternative, vulnerability dependent on smaller party in trade negotiations often have more pricing, it also in bilateral economic cooperation relations, have more 'control'. Although the overall, global iron ore reserves more abundant, but for iron ore production was is relatively concentrated trend. Global iron ore production mainly concentrated in two BHP and Brazil CVRD three big mining giant hand, this makes the industry become truly monopoly. For ore business speaking, it should control the production to indirect control iron ore prices. In addition to Australia and Brazil two abroad, China's iron ore another major source of import kingdom is an India. However, from the perspective of the trend in the future, China's import a lot of iron ore from India is not only the purchase cost, but buy get problems. India more and more will China as the rise of Asia in the process of the potential rivals. At present, the international market of iron ore prices have already at record levels, but the volume still growing. The Australian iron ore exports prospects in a long time more optimistic.

China for Australia's minerals trade dependence is very strong, particularly iron ore imports. The core of Chinese in Australia also focused on economic interests in iron ore trade. According to Chinese customs statistics, China is the fourth largest iron ore import goods, Australia is China's largest iron ore source of imports. In view of this, the China trade to Australia dependent on high is self-evident. Therefore, the Australian exports to China's minerals alternative is small, and cause Australia in trade negotiations often have more pricing and the sexual. Second, China's exports of manufactured goods Australia intense market competition Although China with its low labor cost advantage in these areas occupy Australia a large market share, but these categories product features a technical content is not high, and the second is the market alternative is stronger, three is consumption stiffness;

Also, they are in Australia there is fierce competition in the market. The United States, Japan, Italy, South Korea, Singapore, New Zealand and other countries in such goods manufacturing and export has strong competition ability, in Australia in the high-end market hold position; Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and other neighboring countries are also rely on cost advantages, in Australia such commodity market showed on the strong competition potential. As for Australia, imported from China a few main kinds of manufactured goods in the above market has imported alternative. And, from the perspective of the trend in recent years, because the market competition cruel, China's exports of manufactured goods prices of Australia and increase in decline. China's export to Australia's most major commodity to be automatic data processing equipment, for example, the average price of imports in 2006 dropped 3.6%, imports rose by only 6.3%, much lower than the Australia from Malaysia and the United States imports growth, they rise to 13.3% and 40.7%, respectively. Although China's export to Australia's primary manufactured goods in the amount rising, but average export prices are to some extent declines. Many reasons: first, China's primary manufactured goods manufacturers not fully consider market capacity problems, blind mass production was ebbing, thus pushes down prices. This is the case in textiles, footwear trade particularly outstanding.

China's accession to the world trade organization, as the tariffs down gradually, and the advantage industry textiles, footwear export is expanding fast. But, in recent years trade in saturated trend, export prices down gradually, such as 2005 years GuoMian knitted shirts made the export price by $3.12 in 2004 down to $1.71, a drop of about 45%. Second, China's primary manufactured goods manufacturers more dispersed, blind pursue sales, not form a unified export pricing coordinate system, appeared between manufacturers for sale situation, formation of vicious competition in a price war. Third, China's primary manufactured goods, the low degree of processing, the added value of the technology is not high, the manufacturer didn't focus on brand image promotion and the innovation of the product development, the lead to industry overall image is not high, most of the export price of the low end of the industry chain is in low labor. We can see from the above two points between China and Australia since the asymmetric relationship. In Australia the dependence of the bilateral trade mainly reflects in iron ore trade.

No matter from China's share of Australia's share of the iron ore exports look, or Australian iron ore exports of China's consumption of the proportion of the look, Australia in iron ore trade both sides for each other is of high sensitive dependence. According to the definition of sensitivity dependence, once cut off this kind of trade relations in not to make other adjustment, the economic losses of both sides will be very heavy. This shows that exists between the two countries more sensitive dependence on trade relationship. But, sino-australia relationship between this rely on is obviously not symmetrical. According to our theoretical analysis, determine the tendency of power balance, more key judgments to the other party's fragile both depends on how to.

Determine the key problem is the vulnerability, both sides need for other can choose alternative to pay the cost of how high. Through to the sino-australian of the structure of bilateral trade and the market alternative to carry on the analysis, we conclude that the basic conclusion is, China for Australia's trade depend fragile significantly higher than Australia to China's trade vulnerability dependent degree, which produce power bias in Australia side. This may cause the Chinese in the price of the trade negotiations, in a bad position. In Australia to the asymmetry between rely on understanding of the relationship, perhaps can apply to other related problems out some general judgment.

For example, we can through the trade interdependence, to understand sino-australian bilateral free trade established resistance. At present, the bilateral free trade negotiation is to promote the development of bilateral economic and trade relationship between political events. The two countries officials and scholars from the Angle of economics did a lot of research, think of two countries in Australia on resources, obvious complementarity, free trade area can be set up to give full play to the comparative advantages of the two countries and improve their own competitiveness in the international market, and finally for the two countries to contribute to the growth of the economy. And the existing research shows that Australia in bilateral free trade from can benefit more. But we can't from this simple, optimistic to foresee, bilateral free trade in Australia will be reached smoothly, or think China can get in free trade negotiation more active power. From trade asymmetric rely on point of view, Australia in Australia in bilateral free trade negotiation are more likely to dominate, it will improve the bilateral or for free for the cost.

From what we see, the two countries of free trade negotiations is not well. The reason is stuck in multiple, such as from both domestic interest groups of pressure, and bilateral free trade sign in the externality, and other factors. From our bilateral trade asymmetric dependent relationship cut, may also constitute understand Australia resistance of free trade a perspective. In free trade talks, China is the biggest one of the welfare, Australia is the draconian breakthrough existing policy limitation, its domestic direct investment in mining area. Will we see the analysis, whether to reduce its mining areas of China investment threshold, is Australia in the negotiation of seizing the initiative is a key chip. Eliminate or ease in Australia because trade interdependence of the asymmetry of the produce of free trade resistance, the key is the question of price, and this one major is not master in China &supply his hand.

Of course, the broad conclusion also need to future more concrete and in-depth demonstration. In addition, through the sino-australian trade asymmetric dependent relationship, we can also China's strategic resources to the requirements and development of the problem of the relationship between the furore at cost. Now, including iron ore to China, a variety of economic material needs scale is very large, and the trend of rising inflation. Huge demand natural will affect the price in the international market. But the resources of the ascent of the international price of the products, not only by the free market demand. China's economic development for many strategic materials demand is actually the rigid with the external world produced the power of the asymmetric dependencies. The world resources to rely on degree of vulnerability to enhance, and the results led to become the international market of China although super buyers, but in the race for the pricing is at a disadvantage. Especially for the iron ore market monopoly with similar to that of color resources products, is even more so.

In the latest round of negotiations, the benchmark prices for iron ore and in the basis of the previous year jumped 65% above, finally China or but accept this price. So prices and by relying on traditional process simple economics classic supply demand theory difficult to explain the comprehensive. The middle is largely dependent on the asymmetric relationship to produce power. If a similar situation continues, in the future may be great for the further development of the Chinese economy increasing cost, restrain the development of China's space. China will likely outcome for the ready. Although the historical experience look, one country the strength of the strong and the external resources often positively related dependency; But as in the process of jury power, China needs in the low cost of production factors support economic take-off stage, after all, could no longer enjoy us and European and Japan that have developed these powers of the history of the world enjoy cheap resources conditions. Although these problems in Australia is beyond the bilateral trade relationship category, but it is also worth us the great concept of further study. 5. China and Australia in the free trade area countermeasures and Suggestions Comparative advantage into full play, advance steadily sino-australian free trade area process. China and Australia's economic and industrial structure has the obvious complementarity, speed up the construction of cafta to resources optimization and welfare improvement.

Relative to character, China in shoes, caps of products, cultural and educational sports products, textile products, furniture, metal products, tea and drinks, non-metallic mineral products, machinery and transportation equipment and other products on display sexual competitors are greater than 0 and index. And than China, Australia in mineral products, food, livestock industry, plant and animal feed, non-ferrous metal smelting processed products, fossil fuel, animal fats and its products and textile materials revealed competitive advantage index is higher, have advantages. China after nearly 30 years of reform and opening up, political stability and national economic development, international pace, and the asia-pacific region economic relationship more and more close, for mutual benefit cooperation in Australia have created favorable conditions, especially in agriculture, China telecom, transportation, energy and infrastructure and so on the huge demand for Australia provides a good investment cooperation opportunity. And by participating in regional economic cooperation, further open foreign markets, obtain strategic resources, is China's overall development at home and abroad, using two markets and resources, promote economic development important strategy, China is the implementation of the strategy of market diversification, speed up the "going out" and "introducing" the important means of development strategy. But Australia has not only the rich agricultural resources, but also has the rich mineral and energy resources, its ore, uranium, coal day, ore and alumina 17 kinds of mineral resources in the world before the output of six, is also the world's fifth largest liquefied natural gas exporter.

Australia to China in 2004 the mineral exports accounted for about 60% of the total in China's exports to China, mineral exports nearly 10 years almost 500% growth realization. Strengthen the cooperation with Australia, and to improve agricultural products, energy and resources supply guarantees. In addition, Australia is some technology such as telecommunications, navigation, traffic control, port building, mining, and food storage and transportation, etc are in a leading position, is also China's current economic development needs of science and technology. For Australia is concerned, its domestic market is narrow, for the international market strong dependence. In Australia the two countries' economies has strong complementary, both sides already are very important investment partners. The establishment of a free trade area can not only improve the advantage of the output of the industry, the overall promoting both sides of GDP growth, enhance both parties and the world's overall welfare level, also can build a more fair and more stable investment and business environment. Sino-australian economic and trade relations of cooperation and further development, also be helpful for both sides in the peripheral things more important role. With reference to the WTO rules, and to establish and perfect the trade relief measures.

In general, according to the impact of trade for various reasons, multilateral trade system there are two types of relief measures. One of unfair import competition, but deal with all the behavior of the fair competition imports surged safeguard measures. At present, most of the regional trade agreements are reference the WTO rules, and retained the anti-dumping and countervailing measures and safeguard measures, especially regulation can take emergency protective measures to slow down or eliminate import and domestic market for to bring high pressure. One emergency protective measures including general security measures, transitional protection measures and produce special protection measures.

Although Australia to admit that the Chinese market economy status, and modify their the customs law "and" the customs regulations, but these national economic development level and system, culture and so on all has the very strong consistency, and Chinese practice of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the development of the system of national, Australia is a typical developed capitalist countries, both in politics, economy and culture etc there are large differences, establishing a free trade at least in the short term will deepen these contradictions and conflicts, especially in recent years in Australia bilateral trade relations can be seen in both sides in the agricultural and prevent clothing and other products faces a lot of controversy. Therefore, it is necessary to establish and perfect the trade relief measures to ensure that both sides can trade in stability and fair environment the benign development. Strengthen negotiation and communication, establish a trade dispute settlement mechanism. Sino-australian if establishing a free trade will be developing countries and developed countries established between the free trade, not only is there the resources, the level of economic development and industrial structure of the difference, it has a policy and regulations for institutional differences, easy to produce some dispute.

So, build a lasting bilateral negotiation and handing over the effective mechanism, establish knowledge property rights group and take measures to enhance policy and legal aspects in the coordinate is necessary.

Australia is all WTO members, about the content of the dispute settlement mechanism should be in trade rules and the basic rules of WTO unified coordination. In addition, still need to establish a set of executable supervision measures.

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