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Essay代写:A Discussion of Mental Disorders

2018-02-09 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- A Discussion of Mental Disorders,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了精神障碍的问题。长期以来,精神障碍与犯罪率上升之间的关系一直困扰着人们。当美国发生枪支暴力事件时,这种担忧变得越来越明显。抑郁症是一种常见的精神疾病,患有抑郁症的人非常容易发怒,这可能会导致攻击性行为。此外,患有暴躁症的人更有可能采取鲁莽或危险的行为。这意味着对于精神障碍患者而言,他们的心理活动是不协调的,精神活动与环境也是不相容的。

Mental Disorder,精神障碍,英国代写,essay代写,代写

Hillary Clinton said that...begin treating mental illness as the illness it is on a parity with other illnesses”(Clinton, 1.This leads to a series questions: how mental illness should be regarded; what possible harm will be caused to the society and children if it is not treated; what influence it may have on people's live. There is a series of interrelated and inseparable spiritual activities of human beings from receiving external stimuli, to the response to the external stimuli. Due to various abnormal psychological processes caused by physical, psychological or social reason, one may develop some abnormal personality or characteristics of abnormal behavior. This is in general called mental disorders. In this article, it is to answer those questions by discussing the relationship between mental disorders and increase in crime rate, whether mental disorder is a disease, and the detrimental effect of childhood trauma on children. It is argued that mental disorders lead to increase in crime rate; mental disorder is a disease; and childhood trauma will have the detrimental effect on children

Section 1

A lot of researches and national institutions supports the relationship between mental disorders and increase in crime rate. For a long time, the question of the relationship between mental disorders and increase in crime rate has been bothering people. This worries become more and more obvious when there is some gun violence in the United states. Ann Coulter said : "Guns don't kill people—the mentally ill do”(Rapoport , 2). In addition to those personal opinion held by some social celebrity, the data of national institutions like NICS also showed the relationship between mental disorders and crime. NICS’s database and text shows cases of mentally ill people committing violence(Rapoport , 3). Crimes committed by mental patients are a preferred subject matter of a lot of writer and film director. This such link is closely related to some characteristics and abnormal behavior of people with mental disorders. Depression is a common mental disorder. People with depression are often easy to get angry, which may cause aggressive action(Satcher,1). In addition, people with Bipolar Disorder are more likely to do reckless or risky behavior(Satcher,2). This means that for mental disorder patients, some of aspects of mental activity are uncoordinated and the mental activity is incompatible with the environment.

However, there are official data and scientific researches which have broken this bias of link between mental disorders and increase in crime rate and there are also doubts of such links as a political excuses. Although mental disorders is often associated with violence, patients rarely commit crimes or do harm to others. It is more likely for people with mental illness to be victims of crimes instead of criminal, according to Debbie Plotnick, and the crime done by people with mental illness account for only 5 percent of all violent crimesRapoport ,3.  In addition, the relationship between mental disorders and increase in crime rate is believed by some one to be proposed based on political or even economical interests, instead of scientific facts. It is the National Rifle Association that also supported relationship between mental disorders with mental illness(Rapoport , 1).By blaming increase in crime rate to mental disorders, it can attract the public attention to the problem of mental disorders, a medical issue in essence. It is hard for the health providers to predict murderous behavior in general(Rapoport ,2). This will help the government officials, and National Rifle Association and administrators of NICS to get rid of the criticism of the public of its poor management of guns. New York's new gun control law makes relationship between mental disorders with mental illness as a political excuse(Rapoport , 2).

Infact, those counterarguments had some flaws as it was considering the link between mental disorders and increase in crime rate from the perspective of conspiracy theory and overlook the connection of mental health and crimes even if they are only victims.  In the political party of both Democrats and Republicans, the pro-gun and anti-gun lobbies, it is believed that treatment and monitoring of mental health can help to decrease gun violence(Rapoport , 1). If the relationship between mental disorders and increase in crime rate is supported by government officials and administrators of NICS as a political excuses, it is unreasonable for anti-gun lobbies to also supported such relationship between them. In addition, more and more states in the U.S began to adopt the policy with the belief of the link between mental disorders and increase in crime rate. Gun control law in Ohio and Colorado prevent people in the mental institution from owning guns(Rapoport, 1). Policy makers in Louisiana, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Utah also prevent people with the mental problem from owning guns(Rapoport , 1). The wide adoption of new rules and laws can reveal the problems of medical care of mental disorders, making the argument of it as a political excuse untenable. The new rules and proposals of denying the guns rights of people with mental disorder will make policemen and veterans with mental health hard to get help(Rapoport ,2). And also, when people’s attention are attracted to the mental health problems and realize such, it is still hard for Democrats and Republicans, and government officials to get rid of public outcry. Thus, it is impossible for them to use it as a political excuse as it can only bring them more trouble and public accusations. They just had to issue such laws and policies. In addition, although Debbie Plot nick said that it is more likely for people with mental illness to be victims of crimes instead of criminal, this can also be understood that existence of mental illness will trigger crimes as they are highly possible preys or indirect causes of crimes done by others. This will also lead to increase of crime indirectly.

Section 2

Also, mental disorders is a disease, as it is related to some problems with peoples minds and more importantly, it can be cured. According to the World Bank and the World Health Organization, depression lead to disability all over the worldClinton, 2.A person diagnosed with mental disorders is due to mental tension, interference, thus leaving his or her thinking, emotion and behavior deviating standard orbit from the social life. When the phenomenon of psychological and behavioral deviation from social life gets more severe and goes beyond the extent of the standard, the more serious mental illness will become. Also, one powerful evidence of mental disorder can be a disease is that it can be traced to a certain organs. Mental disorder is illnesses as it is disease of a real organ—the brain(Clinton, 2). After a contrast between the brains of the normal people and people with mental disorders will makes it more clear. The brain of a healthy person, and of someone with schizophrenia, have different active area(Clinton, 2). Certain structure of brain may become smaller when depression remain untreated(Clinton, 3).People long-term in this state of excessive stress may lead to a series of mental illness. For example, Illnesses like schizophrenia are the brain related illness(Clinton, 1).Like other diseases, they can be made diagnoses, and can be treated(Clinton, 2).The medication of mental illness is related to psychotherapies and other psychosocial treatments(Clinton, 2) . Another direct and powerful evidence to it as a disease is that like other disease, it can be treated. For example, children with childhood bipolar disorder can be helped through available treatments(Pavuluri, 1). More importantly, it can be passed down in family, like many diseases. Science proves that autism, schizophrenia, manic-depressive illness are genetic disorders, related to family(Clinton, 2).

In addition, there are still a lot of disputes around whether mental disorders could and should be regarded as as a sort of disease as there are a lot of harms that will bring to people with mental disorders. Those people holds that the mindis not a physical organ, although brain is an organ(Bobgan and Bobgan, 1). In addition, they also pointed out that whether mental disorders can be passed is still needs to be verified. The human genome project is not complete and it needs another few years to say the specific relationship between genes and disordersClinton, 2. At last, they held that a belief that diseases like autism or schizophrenia were caused by subtle character flaw in mothers existed for a long time and influenced deeply the public opinion(Clinton, 2).Those opposition can be understood to some degree. It is because that mental disorders is rather special compared to other physical diseases.  Mental disorders, as a sort of psychological problem, is different from the physiological disease. It is a series of problems caused by the human intrinsic mental factors, or more accurately caused by the brain central nervous system control. It will indirectly change the person's character, world view and mood. A person with schizophrenia is difficult to complete a cognitive task (Clinton, 2). Thus, its treament methods are also a little different with other common diseases. Psychotherapy is also used in the mental disorder(“Mental Illness Is a Disease”, 2). But anyhow, the special treatment methods can not deny the fact that the mental disease can not be treated. For a person's behavior identified as "illness", it can be dealt with by treatment and therapy(Bobgan and Bobgan, 1). As for the still unconfirmed specific relationship between genes and disorders, it should be noted that a sort of relationship exists although the specific relationship remains to be found. It is true about the opposition is that if some mental disorders are seen as mental illness, patients often can not get timely medical treatment because of "shame" , and have delayed treatment. And relatives of patients and colleagues also did not show some of the sympathy of the community of mental disease. There are prejudices and discrimination indeed so that after rehabilitation of mental illness, they can not be successfully returned to the social family. But this social issues can not be the reason that people deny to admit it as a disease from scientific point of view.

Section 3

At last, Childhood trauma can have some detrimental effect on children. One in ten children who have a serious mental illness enough may be harmed(McNulty,1). Childhood traumatic may be caused by a sudden, but major blow. In violent communities with shootings, this environmental pose a threat to kids always, impacting children's physiology(Carrion, 2). Or it may be the spiritual consequences caused by a series of strikes. There is a wide range of Childhood trauma: abuse or neglect, alcohol or drugs abuse in family, incarceration or mentally illness, mother treated violently, single family(Carrion, 2). According to clinic in Bay view-Hunters Point research, the percent of kids with score of 4 and above is 30 times higher to have learning and behavior problems and twice to be obese compared to kids with no such experience(Carrion, 2).  These events broke the child's sense of security, satisfaction and self-worth, so that children entered temporarily into a sense of helplessness , and broke the usual coping mechanisms used by them in the past. Trauma begins with an external event, but once it occurs, many internal changes can occur in the child, and this change will last for many years and become a decisive cause of illness. Mental illness, and its symptom of obesity, are related to childhood trauma, according to Victor Carrion(Carrion, 1).

Indeed, early childhood trauma affects all aspects of personality development. According to World Health Organization, in ten years, childhood neuropsychiatric disorders will increase by over 50 percent all over the world, leading to childhood disease, death, and disability(McNulty,2). Unhealthy mental stimulation and mental trauma can lead to deviation of children's psychological quality, personality characteristics, habitual behavior, affecting the adult employment of children, social skills, mental health quality and personality health formation. Problem of learning and behavior increases with more trauma experience, according to psychiatrist(Carrion, 1). Men of middle-class social status experienced trauma had more chronic diseases when they were mature(Carrion, 2). Also, some research on child maltreatment shows that this problem is not only a simple social problem, but also a medical problem. Some empirical study shows link between mental illness, and childhood trauma(Carrion, 1). Over the past two decades, many researchers have been concerned about the relationship between childhood trauma and adult psychological and personality, mental disorders. Post-traumatic stress disorder is found in 30 percent of children from violent communities(Carrion, 2). A number of studies have shown that childhood traumatic experiences are highly associated with various mental disorders in adults.

However, someone refutes the idea that childhood trauma can have some detrimental effect on children based on the limited subject group of covered in some scientific research and the exaggeration of seriousness of childhood trauma. For example, the empirical researches clinic in Bay view-Hunters Point to probe the relationship between between mental illness, and childhood trauma are limited to the study of children of poor background(Carrion, 2). Also, someone argues that “Children can recover from PTSD with the appropriate treatment” Carrion said(Carrion, 2).Other evidence to deny the seriousness of childhood trauma is that it only appear in a fixed period of time. There is a limited period of time of duration of dysthymic disorder in children and adolescents, which is about 4 years in average(Satcher, 2).Those positions seems to make sense as what they said is consistent with truth. But the first position denies one important feature of research: specific research subject. Also, the research to probe the relationship between childhood trauma and some detrimental effect on children is informative as it is based on medical records of 701 children(Carrion, 2). As for the doubts about the seriousness of childhood trauma on children, it overlooks the higher possibility of mistakes of medical treatment if the problems of childhood trauma is downplayed. Lack of attention of link between mental illness, and childhood trauma may lead to wrong treatment(Carrion, 1). Thus, it may cause a huge waste of medical resources and a huge harm to the children with trauma. "If trauma goes untreated, it's very costly for the individuals involved and for society in general” Carrion said(Carrion, 3).

Conclusion

To sum up, question to Hillary Clinton’s remark that“...begin treating mental illness as the illness it is on a parity with other illnesses” is quite satisfactorily solved. Mental illness should be regarded as a disease. Also, there are possible harm will be caused to the society and children if it is not treated and it may have influence on people's live: there is confirmed relationship between mental disorders and increase in crime rate; also, it is proven and the detrimental effect on children can be caused by childhood trauma. In brief, it helps people to have a correct attitude and develop right measures for the curing of mental illness.

Works cited

Bobgan, Martin, and Deidre Bobgan. "Mental Illness Is Not a Disease."Mental Illness, edited by Tamara L. Roleff and Laura K. Egendorf, Green haven Press, 2000. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010154214/OVIC?u=oran33232&xid=01869c11. Accessed 11 Jan. 2017

Carrion, Victor. "Childhood Trauma Can Lead to Mental Illness."Mental Illness, edited by Noah Berlatsky, Green haven Press, 2016. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010154285/OVIC?u=oran33232&xid=e09fc313. Accessed 17 Jan. 2017. Originally published as "Childhood Trauma Linked to Higher Rates of Mental Health Problems and Obesity, Says Stanford/Packard Psychiatrist,"Med.stanford.edu, 8 June 2011.

Clinton, Hillary Rodham. "Mental Illness Is a Disease."Mental Illness, edited by Tamara L. Roleff and Laura K. Egendorf, Green haven Press, 2000. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010154213/OVIC?u=oran33232&xid=3bed507c. Accessed 11 Jan. 2017. Originally published as "testimony given by Hillary Rodham Clinton and Steven Hyman to the White House Conference on Mental Health," 1999.

Dobson, Roger.“Mental Illness Can Be a Source of Creativity”. Mental Illness.(2012)

McNulty, Jim. "Untreated Teen Depression Can Lead to Suicide."Teen Suicide, edited by John Woodward, Green haven Press, 2005. At Issue. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010026217/OVIC?u=oran33232&xid=7b5d92d7. Accessed 12 Jan. 2017. Originally published as "testimony before the Subcommittee on Children and Families, Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions," 2001.

Pavuluri, Mani. "Bipolar Disorder in Children Is a Serious Problem."Behavioral Disorders, edited by Roman Espejo, Green haven Press, 2014. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010640235/OVIC?u=oran33232&xid=06ac7619. Accessed 17 Jan. 2017. Originally published as "Yes, Bipolar Disorder Does Occur in Children,"What Works for Bipolar Kids: Help and Hope for Parents, New York, 2008

Rapoport, Abby. "Guns—Not the Mentally Ill—Kill People."Gun Violence, edited by Noël Merino, Green haven Press, 2015. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010223276/OVIC?u=oran33232&xid=c29c3c58. Accessed 12 Jan. 2017. Originally published in American Prospect, 7 Feb. 2013

Satcher, David. "Mood Disorders Contribute to Teen Suicide."Suicide, edited by Roman Espejo, Green haven Press, 2003. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010164243/OVIC?u=oran33232&xid=4d60f481. Accessed 17 Jan. 2017. Originally published as "Depression and Suicide in Children and Adolescents,"Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General, Dec. 1999.

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