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Essay代写:Germany's social pension system

2018-07-10 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Germany's social pension system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了德国的社会养老保险制度。德国不仅是现代社会保险制度的发源地,也是最早颁布养老保险法的国家,其社会养老保险制度的建立在二战后重建中也显得尤为重要。在养老金改革时,德国把退休年龄定为男性65岁,女性60岁,且从职业生活过渡到退休的过程中,年老的雇员拥有更多机会的选择自由。而随着生产率和工资水平的提高,养老保险费率也进一步得到了提高。

Germany's social,德国社会养老保险制度,英国代写,英国论文代写,essay代写

Although the great economic crisis of the 1930s gave birth to the world war, it also gave birth to the "people's budget" of Britain and the "New Deal of Roosevelt" of the United States. In the settlement of people's livelihood issues after the war, these new welfare systems, which were subsequently established, were generally called welfare states. This paper will summarize and analyze the development process and problems of social endowment insurance system in welfare state Germany and the reform measures adopted.

Germany is not only the birthplace of modern social insurance system, but also the earliest country to promulgate the endowment insurance law. As an old capitalist country, Germany is also the defeated country in the two world wars. The establishment of social endowment insurance system is particularly important in the post-war reconstruction. At the end of 19th century, the second Reich of Germany gave birth to the first social insurance system determined by law in world history. In 1889, the German empire passed laws on disability and pension insurance, marking the establishment of Germany's social endowment insurance system. After more than 120 years of evolution and development, Germany's current social endowment insurance system has made clear provisions on its scope of use, sources of funds, payment standards and other aspects.

After entering the 21st century, the German pension system conducted a series of reforms, from the past the only pillar model into three pillars, namely by the statutory pension insurance, enterprise pension insurance and private pension insurance of three pillars, and Germany's endowment insurance payment by capital accumulation mode into pay-as-you-go. At the heart of the reform is the creation of a system of private pension accumulation, which is encouraged by the state to mark the event with the "rist" pension. Unlike other welfare states, Germany has created a breakthrough social welfare market that is tightly regulated and tightly controlled for market access and investment.

With the development of economy and the acceleration of industrial process, the operation of social endowment insurance system in Germany is facing many crises. And Germany's pension system has become one of the largest share of the national budget, which has undoubtedly brought great pressure on the German government's finance.

With the continuous improvement of social insurance system, the change of population structure has had an important impact on it. The improvement in medical conditions has reduced the death rate, and the birth rate has been declining or even decreasing. As a result, Germany's population is ageing. And the increase of elderly population will lead to the increase of the endowment insurance gold, at the same time, the social phenomenon of lack of labor will be left Germany under the operation of pay-as-you-go pension pay cut, there is narrow. This has undoubtedly posed a great threat to the social endowment insurance system that adopts the pay-as-you-go system.

The influence brought by the change of population structure is mainly reflected in the income and expenditure of the German government on social pension security. According to relevant data show that the German government fiscal expenditure of social welfare spending by 2012 euros in 21.5841 billion up to 2015 euros in 27.7 billion, and 2015 social welfare spending up 4.8% from 2014. An average full-time worker in Germany, meanwhile, gets 70 per cent of his salary when he retires, far more than in other developed countries such as the us. At the end of 2013, the balance of pension fund was 43.9 billion euros, accounting for 20% of the then GNP. Although Germany's fiscal revenue has been growing in recent years and its fiscal surplus has been expanding, the increasing social pension is still an important part of fiscal expenditure.

Germany has implemented a "flexible retirement age" since 1972, which allows people to receive a pension at the age of 60 or 63 if certain preconditions are met. In 1992, when the pension reform was introduced, Germany set the retirement age at 65 for men and 60 for women, and the transition from professional life to retirement gave older employees more freedom of choice. This results in the fact that the average retirement age of retirees is much lower than the statutory retirement age. So the German government plans to gradually raise the retirement age to 67 from 2012 to 2029 in the form of increasing each year.

Lower the pension level and raise the pension insurance rate. According to the measure, from 2009 to 2030, the German legal endowment insurance premium level before tax will fall from 53% in 2011 to 46% in 2020, and thus to 43% in 2030, the present decreasing trend, and will always below the level "list" pension, gap will continue to expand. At the same time, with the increase of productivity and wage level, the increase of pension insurance rate is inevitable. However, when the endowment insurance rate increase means that wages of additional costs rise, enterprise in order to reduce costs, will adopt measures of downsizing, lead to rising unemployment, resulting in a vicious cycle of pension insurance payments. Germany's pension reform aims to charge no more than 22 per cent by 2030.

The reform of the rist pension is to expand private pension insurance. In 2001, the coalition government of the ruling social Democratic Party and the green party began the most important pension reform in history. The reist pension reform act refers to the establishment of a separate fund accumulation model in addition to the statutory pension insurance, which has become one of the three pillars of German pension insurance. As long as German citizens sign private pension contracts with insurance companies, Banks or funds, they can receive subsidies from the state and the amount increases year by year. At present, the number of German citizens participating in the "rist" pension is also increasing, and the reform measures are being effectively implemented.

The establishment of the German social endowment insurance system, the development and reform, is an extremely complex process, is a constant process of combining theory with practice, it is a long process of evolving. From three pillars to "list" pension reform, these measures are put forward for the development of the system of social endowment insurance in our country and other countries change provides reference and experience, to solve the problem of social welfare of the people of the world made great contributions.

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