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Essay代写:Virtual capital

2018-10-11 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Virtual capital,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了虚拟资本。资本是可以增值的价值,而虚拟资本则是可以带来货币收入的价值符号。虚拟资本的表现形式是多样的、动态的,银行存款货币是虚拟资本的重要表现形式。从本质上看,虚拟资本是信用关系的载体,反映授信主体和受信主体之问的责权利关系。尽管虚拟资本是一种纯粹幻想的观念,但因为其能够像资本一样给其持有者带来收益,自然地,虚拟资本同样有一个价值计量和价值表现问题。

Virtual capital,虚拟资本,英国代写,英国论文代写,essay代写

Capital is the value that can add value, fictitious capital is the value symbol that can bring money income. Capital is the concrete condensation of human labor, and virtual capital is the certificate of claim of value formed by economic subject in credit activity, which is an abstract value symbol. The forms of virtual capital are various and dynamic, and bank deposit money is an important form of virtual capital. In essence, virtual capital is the carrier of credit relationship, reflecting the relationship of responsibility and right between the subject of credit granting and the subject of credit. Starting from the labor theory of value, this paper analyzes the essence and manifestation of virtual capital according to the logical structure of Marx's discussion on capital and virtual capital, and reveals the virtual and capital nature of virtual capital.

In recent years, virtual capital and virtual economy has been the focus of some domestic scholars pay attention to and research, they are from a different perspective of virtual capital and virtual economy related question has carried on the beneficial discussion and some useful conclusions are drawn, but about the definition of the concept and category of anything has not form a unified conclusion, some of the basic theory of kernel has not yet been solved. For example: what is virtual capital? What is its essence? How did it come about? How is the virtual value determined? What is the form? How about virtual capital flow? And so on. The perplexity of these basic propositions will certainly influence the further study of this problem. Starting from the labor theory of value, this paper tries to explore the answers of these basic propositions under the logical framework of Marx's argumentation on capital and virtual capital.

Although there are discussions on virtual capital in foreign countries, the frequency of foreign scholars using such terms as virtual capital and virtual economy is very low. It can be said that China is the main discussion place on the issue of virtual capital, and the users of this term are mostly marxists, both at home and abroad. Marx's treatise on virtual capital is the basis of understanding and defining this concept by marxists at home and abroad.

Although in the study, relevant scholars have referred to the development of the credit and credit system of virtual capital and virtual economy prosperous, but few scholars from the perspective of credit to reveal the nature of the virtual capital credit, reveal the virtual capital is the carrier of credit relationship, nothing but although this carrier is dynamic and changing. The characteristics of capital and some forms of expression have been discussed in detail. Therefore, how to understand and elaborate the connotation of virtual capital under Marx's pen has become the primary task of this research.

In marxist economics, capital and virtual capital are a set of relative concepts. The essence of capital is the value that can bring surplus value, capital is the unity of material content and social form. Virtual capital is the "paper copy of real capital", which is the ownership certificate in the form of contract, which is protected by law and reflects the credit relationship of creditor's rights and debts. It is just the right certificate of value, which exists in the form of capital claim.

From Marx's classic description of capital, we can clearly see the value entity and value-added of capital. Value becomes capital because it can add value. The value-added part of capital and capital itself are like "the father of the son at the same time". Once the value is added, value is converted into capital, just like "once a son is born, and becomes a father because of having a son".

Therefore, in people's thinking and logic, the source of certain economic benefits, or the ultimate measure of economic benefits, the source of money income is taken for granted as capital, or any thing that can bring money income is capitalized, regardless of whether such things are valuable or not. This particular kind of capital is the value that people fantasize about, and is "treated as the value of a certain amount of capital that is entitled to a certain amount of income. It is in this case that virtual capital, because of its ability to generate monetary income, has naturally been taken as capital or taken on the mantle of capital. The ugly duckling is not the beautiful swan after all, capital is the value, is the crystallization of human labor, and the virtual capital itself has no value, so Marx called this kind of non-value which can bring the monetary income to people who have acquired the capital cover as virtual capital.

Take stocks, one of the forms of virtual capital that Marx mentioned. The stock is the person share certificate issued by the stock company to the stockholder, it is the certificate that the stockholder owns share capital ownership, it is the legal certificate that stockholder value claims the right, reflected the relation of duty and right of stockholder and company. The stock itself has no value, but it can bring a certain monetary gain, this kind of worthless thing in the earnings mask down to the capital.

Therefore, we can see that virtual capital is a credit certificate that has no value but can bring money income. Under the thinking inertia of understanding the concept of capital, all value symbols are regarded as capital because they can bring money income. However, because it is only a paper voucher of the claim of value and has no value itself, Marx has used the word "virtual" as the attribute, and the cause of the concept of virtual capital becomes clear.

Although virtual capital is "always a concept of pure fantasy", because it can bring benefits to its holders as much as capital, it naturally also has a value measurement and value representation problem.

In terms of value representation, value and virtual value are the same. Whether it is value or virtual value, they will be expressed in the form of currency -- price. The currency of capital is represented by the price of capital. Similarly, the currency of virtual capital is represented by the price of virtual capital. This virtual value represents the price of a credit certificate, a certificate of entitlement.

Although the value and the virtual value will adopt the same undifferentiated monetary or price performance, the virtual value and the value are different in quantitative logic and reverse.

The problem of the representation form of virtual capital has been a heated area in China. In "das kapital", Marx analyzed specific forms of virtual capital, such as commercial bills, state bonds, stocks and bank notes without the protection of gold reserves. In these specific forms, domestic scholars generally do not dispute, so the analysis of these forms will not be covered in this paper. But do Banks create other forms of virtual capital besides bank notes? The most important component of bank capital - is deposit creation money the concrete manifestation of virtual capital? This became the focus of discussion.

Although some domestic scholars have defined the research category of virtual capital and virtual economy as finance and interpreted it as the activity of generating money with money, they have not given a good explanation fundamentally according to Marx's logic, but only a vague intuition judgment of Marx's description of bank capital creation. This is mainly because people do not have a clear understanding of the essential meaning and characteristics of the concept of virtual capital, so it is impossible to reveal the virtual nature of bank capital.

The main difference between these two types of virtual capital is that the former represents the liabilities of the bank and the latter represents the assets of the bank. They are two sides of the same coin. Banks' holdings of virtual capital, for example, a fixed amount of money in the capitalist mode of production of the product of the most exquisite and rich "- the credit intermediary bank, after a lot of credit lending, bank holdings of this kind of value symbol and multiply, and expand the value of the bank claims, numerous virtual capital is created. "" everything would double and double under this credit system to the point that it would become a monster of pure fantasy." "With the development of interest-bearing capital and credit systems, it seems that all capital will double, and sometimes even double, as there are various ways in which the same capital or even the same debt may appear in different forms in different hands. The largest part of this' monetary capital 'is purely virtual."

Therefore, we can see that the capital of the bank is virtual, which exists in the form of virtual capital reflecting the relationship between creditor's rights and debts, and the virtuality of bank deposit and loan currency is obvious. When the same deposit is transferred between the bank and the borrower, the virtual capital is created continuously.

Moreover, Marx said that the largest part of this "monetary capital", "nine-tenths", was purely virtual. This is because the convertible metal-based currency system was implemented in the marxist era, so part of the capital in the bank is not virtual, but exists in the form of commodity metal. Under the modern pure credit currency system, credit currency represents the creditor's right of the issuer, and currency itself becomes a manifestation of virtual capital. The deposit currency born on this basis is the symbol of value, which is naturally a kind of virtual capital. That is to say, the establishment of credit currency makes the virtual capital evolve from value symbol to value symbol, which is a virtual, and the degree of virtual deepens.

Thus it can be seen that different credit relations correspond to different forms of virtual capital. Stock, bond, commercial bill of exchange, bank bill, bank note, currency, bank deposit currency, etc., are the manifestation forms of virtual capital. In addition, the value symbols reflecting obligations and rights of modern financial derivatives such as options and futures also belong to the category of virtual capital.

The appreciation makes the value become capital, thus people turn the credit certificate that can bring money income into capital, the non-value body that can bring appreciation becomes capital in people's idea, be regarded as capital, became capital in imagination.

What constitutes capital is not the substance of its form, but the value of that substance. In the same way, what constitutes virtual capital is not its existence form of various credit vouchers, but the right of claim of value represented by these vouchers. Therefore, the core content of virtual capital as the carrier of credit relationship is credit. Different rights and obligations lead to different claims and different virtual capital, no matter how it changes with The Times in form, but the essence is eternal. Virtual capital is nothing but the carrier of credit relationship formed in economic activities.

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