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essay代写-Heian Japanese society

2018-11-05 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- Heian Japanese society讨论了平安时代的日本社会。公元794年,桓武天皇从旧都奈良移到新都平安京,平安时代开始。迁都平安京之后,桓武天皇加强中央行政,刷新地方政治,以力图排除权势贵族和僧侣势力的影响。因此,平安时代初期,天皇制中央集权得以保持。班田收授制度是早期封建国家掠夺农民土地的制度,平安时代初期在实施上遇到一系列问题,尽管做出了改革,但班田制在众多地方仍难以推行。总之,平安时代的中后期,皇权衰落、氏族复兴,包括农业、商业在内的封建经济得到顺利发展。平安时代的文化,也就在这样的社会状况中孕育而生。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

Heian Japanese society,平安时代,essay代写,代写,paper代写

In 794 AD, emperor huan wu moved from the old capital nara to the new capital heian king, the heian era began. By 1192, the reign of yuan lai led to the establishment of the kamakura shogunate, ending the heian period.

After moving the capital to ping an jing, emperor huan wu strengthened central administration and refreshed local politics in an effort to exclude the influence of powerful nobles and monks. Thus, in the early heian period, imperial power was maintained. The bantian order-receiving system was a system of plundering farmers' land in the early feudal countries. In the early period of the heian period, a series of problems were encountered in the implementation. Although reforms were made, the bantian system was still difficult to be implemented in many places. At the same time, the manor system, which first emerged in the nara era, stipulated that the land was not privately owned, and the state forced a part of the annual tribute from the zhuang people to be used as land rent. In the early period of ping an, the manor was still in the public ownership. However, with the increasing power of the noble manor owners, they began to fight for their manor not to lose the rent. After that, the manor owners began to fight for the "no entry" of the manor, that is, they did not recognize that the central government had jurisdiction and police power in the manor. Through the unremitting efforts of the owner of the land, the public citizen system gradually disintegrated. With the gradual collapse of bantian settlement system and the civil Commons, the aristocracy significantly expanded its power.

Fujiwara, who prided himself on the success of dahua innovation, has been well rewarded by the emperor's government. They acquired vast amounts of land, Labour and wealth in the name of various awards, and their power was restored to prominence. In addition, fujiwara also played politics, fighting opponents, and married with the royal family to achieve a consort. In the second half of the 9th century, fujiwara achieved the goal of establishing the politics of regent and ruling the state.

In short, in the middle and late period of the heian period, the imperial power declined, the clan was revived, and the feudal economy including agriculture and commerce developed smoothly. The culture of heian era was born in such social conditions.

In nara era, Japan sent tang envoy, overseas students, learned monks and so on to study in tang, and actively spread tang culture after returning to China. In the late 9th century, from the middle and late tang dynasties, and the increasingly imperious influence of the Japanese aristocracy, the emperor had a negative attitude towards cultural exchanges. In 894 AD, the emperor stopped sending an envoy to the tang dynasty. Heian period after 300, the Japanese on the basis of the incoming nara era culture in tang dynasty, combined with the national cultural tradition, cultivate a unique culture idea, political and economic center of gravity down, at the same time also greatly accelerate the revival of the Japanese native culture, to form the special culture ", or "and culture", the "special" to highlight the unique Japanese culture creativity and a strong sense of national independence.

The glorious achievement of national culture in the heian era is reflected in the rich cultural achievements:

Buddhist culture: based on the buddhist culture in the tang dynasty, Shinto joined people's belief in Buddhism and appeared the trend of the unity of Buddha and god. In the later period of peace, Japan advocated escaping from the current sufferings and finally entering the pure land of elysium. After that, there were some books that advocated pure land Buddhism, such as the book of the past life and the book of the extreme joy of the past life in Japan. Japanese Buddhism has a strong sense of nationalism, which is one of the characteristics of Japanese Buddhism.

Literature and history: before the heian period, the Japanese did not have their own writing, Chinese characters have been as a carrier of communication. Under the influence of Chinese characters, false names appeared. The birth of false names is the crystallization of collective wisdom of Japanese social workers in the process of production and labor. With the emergence and promotion of pseudonyms, Japan also began the creation of its national literature. After the middle of the ninth century, a number of famous Japanese writers emerged in the literary world, and chanting and singing became the fashion of Japanese society. In 905, the coming out of the collection of ancient and modern harmonies marked the entering of a heyday of the harmonies. What is more remarkable is the emergence of the novel of the Japanese language. The tale of ise, the tale of takeuchi and the tale of genji came out one after another. They solidified the aristocratic life and political entanglements of Japanese society into a historical picture scroll in the form of novels, which has a profound influence on the development of Japanese literature in the future. The heian period also made great achievements in history and compiled five official histories.

Artistic aspect: the artistic achievement manifests in the calligraphy, the painting, the sculpture, the clothing, the architecture and so on many fields. For example, in the early period of ping an, there were "three pens" represented by empty sea, orange yishi and emperor hirohito. In the middle period of ping an, there were "three tracks" represented by onono dao feng, fujiwara pass and fujiwara line, signifying the creation and prosperity of Japanese hefeng calligraphy. For another example, in the middle period of ping an, daiwa painting emerged, which broke away from the religious bondage, took the four seasons and scenic spots as the subject of painting, and combined with the tale and the song. For another example, the later period of peace appeared "harmony" carving, kimono culture, "bedroom style" architectural style and so on.

Nowadays, these cultural achievements are still the representative of the well-known Japanese national culture, which is enough to illustrate the important significance of the national culture in the historical development of Japan. However, the dissemination and inheritance of culture depends on education. Therefore, the evolution of education in the heian era invariably reflects the characteristics of The Times.

In ancient Japan, the main form of education was the official school established by the imperial court, which was divided into universities and sinology. In the central part, it was a university, while in the local area, it was a sinology. Its economic source is the court to the university's teaching field, its education targets are the children of the aristocracy. Universities train important officials for the imperial court. Therefore, the imperial court attaches great importance to the development of officialdom. Education content, mainly taught Confucian classics. Such officialdom is a education institution attached to and ultimately loyal to the court. Therefore, the changes of the imperial court will inevitably lead to the evolution of education. It is mainly shown in three aspects: the law of dabao stipulates that the descendants of some officials can enjoy the privilege of attacking official positions. Therefore, the enthusiasm of the descendants of aristocrats who are not allowed to inherit official positions decreases, leading to a great decline in the number of education subjects in official schools. Fujiwara's relatives bought and sold official positions with money, which led to the fact that even those students who successfully graduated from the school had no positions to find. Due to the gradual disintegration of the public land system, the land controlled by the imperial court was increasingly limited, and the land could not be guaranteed. Therefore, the official learning gradually becomes empty shell, the name exists in existence.

While the official school gradually declined, private school as another form of education gradually flourished. In the beginning, some powerful aristocrats set up residence halls to facilitate their children to study in Beijing capital university. As early as the 8th century AD, some nobles will live in the dormitory to the family private school. Later, in order to make their children accept the necessary education, aristocrats competed to set up private schools. Obviously, the purpose of private education is to let the children learn how to survive, to manage their own property, strengthen their power and consolidate their status. In the heian period, the development of the feudal estate economy and the strength of the aristocracy greatly promoted the prosperity of private education. After the rise of private lecturing, some university instructors gave lectures everywhere. It is worth mentioning that the variety academy founded by the empty sea monk is a private school different from the above noble education, which is open to the common people. It was not easy for this idea to exist in the hierarchical society at that time. From the overall development of education in Japan, it paved the way for Japanese common people education.

Since Buddhism was introduced into Japan, it has been integrated into the mainstream of Japanese culture. The imperial court has built a temple. Therefore, the temple is the center of social culture education. Education, a monk whose temple is the site of education, is also an important form of promoting and popularizing buddhist culture. During the heian period, monasteries and monks education were strengthened at the center of culture education. Some famous monasteries have complete cultural facilities, including library, museum, music hall, sports field, etc. Meanwhile, they also undertake the important function of carrying out social education to the public.

In the heian period, Japan created the original article, which is a teaching content that can cultivate the writing skills of officials, which is more practical than the previous doctor of Confucian classics in nara. Since then, with the prosperity of national literature in the heian era, more and more students volunteered to study the way of articles, so that students who have to go through the training of Ming and jing dao can accept the entrance examination of the way of articles. Therefore, only those who are of noble birth and have a high degree of education can learn to write. In addition, the aristocrats gradually developed some unique cultural customs and took the initiative to accept some education to cultivate aesthetic consciousness, enrich social life and cultivate sentiment. Therefore, education content is also rich, fushi, and songs, music and so on became the noble taste pursued by the aristocracy, these also became the main content of education.

To interpret the education of a country, we should not abandon the attention to its culture. The culture embodies the creativity, national consciousness and national emotion of a nation. The creation and continuation of culture requires education as the carrier and channel. Although the national culture in the heian era of Japan is still created on the basis of absorbing and digesting the culture of the tang dynasty, for a nation with an independent consciousness, the national culture is just a symbol of the soul of the nation. With independent national consciousness and national culture as support, Japan became a education power also has its strong reason.

In terms of politics, in the early period of the heian period, the imperial power in Japan reached the peak of centralized rule after the vigorous reform of successive emperors. Also in the heian period, due to the collapse of the civil Commons, there emerged the noble regent politics. In terms of culture, Japan maintained close cultural exchanges with the tang dynasty in the early period of the heian period and fully absorbed the culture of the tang dynasty. Also during the heian period, Japanese writing appeared, and ancient literature reached its peak, producing various forms of national art, and forming Japan's unique national culture. In terms of education, the public school changed from prosperity to decline, and private school developed rapidly, and regular common people education began to appear. It can be said that in the heian era, Japan is a society full of creativity and strong sense of independent development. It values both absorbing good experience from other countries and the creation and development of its own nation. This is exactly what Japanese culture and education will be for a long time to come, which is also the key to becoming a education power.

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