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essay代写-Voluntary organizations in the UK

2019-01-30 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- Voluntary organizations in the UK讨论了英国的志愿组织。英国志愿组织的活动复杂而多样,包括了众多不同规模和类型的组织。一些组织在互助基础上开展活动,一些组织试图提供利他性服务,一些组织关心倡导问题,而其他组织则专为其成员提供服务。同时,地方性组织往往通过志愿服务理事会等中介网络,或者通过志愿组织联合理事会等全国性机构联系在一起。英格兰志愿组织理事会是英国目前最有影响的志愿组织联盟,甚至在欧洲也比较有影响。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

Voluntary organizations,英国志愿组织,essay代写,代写,paper代写

Non-profit organization is a kind of social organization which is established for public purpose and its profits are not distributed to its members and managers. With the rise of global civil society, people pay more and more attention to it, especially in the United Kingdom, this kind of civil organizations develop faster and relatively mature. However, the concept of "non-profit organization" or "non-governmental organization" is not generally used in the UK, but "charity organization" or volunteer organization. Therefore, it can be said that understanding the operation of British voluntary organizations can better understand the operation of British non-profit organizations and volunteer participation practice. This paper takes the council of voluntary organizations in England as an example to discuss the operation of British non-profit organizations, and tries to summarize the practical experience of British voluntary organization alliance and volunteers, so as to put forward enlightening opinions on the development of Chinese voluntary organizations.

Voluntary sectors or voluntary organizations play an important role in today's society. They help solve difficult social problems and occupy a space separate from government and private sector enterprises. In practice, the definition of charity or voluntary organization varies from country to country, including "voluntary sector", "charity sector", "non-profit sector", "independent sector", "third sector" and so on. Even in the UK, there is no single classification of voluntary sector activities. For example, the British charity and relief foundation USES 14 terms to describe voluntary sector activities, including animals, arts, community progress, education, employment, general welfare, housing, international relief, medical and health, environmental protection, recreation, religion and spiritual transformation, and youth development. In England and wales, the charity board registers organisations that are identified by inland revenue as registered charities. They were classified according to the preamble to the poor law of 1601, and their voluntary services were limited to the poor, the reformation, the reformation of education, and other community welfare. In addition, the United Kingdom now does not refer only to "voluntary organizations", but must add "communities" to official legal documents and register as "voluntary and community sectors". So, in fact, voluntary organizations in the United Kingdom are voluntary and community organizations. In this paper, we also refer to such organizations as voluntary organizations.

As early as 55 AD, the "friendship society" with the nature of mutual aid and mutual benefit appeared in Britain. From the 12th century to the 13th century, formal voluntary activities began to appear in Britain, and non-profit hospitals, private schools and other public welfare undertakings also flourished in Britain. In 1601, England enacted the world's first charity law, the "poor law", which formally established the government's support for civil charity in legal form. Historically, however, it was not until the 19th century that British volunteerism made real progress. At the time, the industrial revolution was under way, social needs were increasing, the population was growing rapidly, and the free economy was developing. Many factors contributed to the growing sense of self-assistance among British citizens. At the same time, the public's deep distrust of the government eventually led to the development of British civil society organizations. Since the 20th century, the government has been increasingly unable to meet the increasing demand for public services. NPO has been growing in the international economy and society, and its scope of role has shifted from being a supplement to the public sector to providing services in cooperation with the government. Governments have also transferred services and activities traditionally provided by the public sector to the private sector. The existence and function of a large number of non-governmental organizations with the purpose of folk charity, the main business of public service and the characteristics of voluntary participation have formed a prosperous scene in which the public sector of the British government and non-governmental organizations jointly promote the public welfare.

After the World War II, the British labor government came into power, and through the implementation of "nationalization", the social services provided by many charities were taken over into the public service of the government, and the function of charitable organizations was weakened. It was not until the 1970s that the thatcher government of the conservative party, aiming at the low efficiency of the government's public sector and overstaffed institutions, began to vigorously promote the policy of "privatization", which led to the great development of charitable organizations. Then, between 1979 and 1997, the relationship between civil society organizations and the government was severely damaged by the policies and ideologies of the conservative government. At that time, the government was superstitious about the market competition of wanningdan, and the supply of public services to local governments was often contracted out through competitive bidding. Although the participation of the citizen sector in bidding can provide good social services, in this way, the line between the public and private sectors is becoming increasingly blurred. Non-profit organizations accept too much contract outsourcing of public service supply, which to some extent also harms the basic mission and value of non-profit organizations. According to the 1997 BMRB international survey on national voluntary activities, 1, between 1991 and 1997, the level of voluntary activities has decreased slowly, from 51% of the adult population in 1991 to 48% in 1997. More retirees are volunteering, but the percentage of young people doing so is down. Organizational practices have improved since 1991, however, 70 per cent of volunteers are still dissatisfied with the way their volunteer activities are organized.

When the Labour government came back to power in 1995, the Blair government carried out the "modernization" reform of the public sector, repositioned the relationship between the public sector, the private sector and the civil society, and began to put special emphasis on the new relationship between the state and the voluntary sector. In 1998, the UK launched the partnership between government and civil society, focusing on improving the capacity of voluntary community organisations. Volunteer organisations are beginning to play a growing role in the provision of public services in Britain. In 1995 there were 50, 000 active charities in Britain; by July 2005 there were 169, 247. Formal volunteering is also on the rise. A home office survey in 2004 found that an estimated 42 per cent of britons volunteered regularly, having done so at least once between 2003 and 2004, up three percentage points from 39 per cent in 2003. In addition, the participation of voluntary and community organizations in the provision of public services has been greatly enhanced. In 2002, Britain's 153,000 so-called general charities had revenues of 20.8 billion and assets of about 70.1 billion. By March 2004, general charities employed about 569,000 paid staff, or 2% of the UK total. Another survey showed the number of paid volunteer sector workers in the UK had risen by 26 per cent in the past decade, from 567,000 in 2003 to 611,000 in 2005. In 2003, 28 percent of people volunteered at least once a month, rising to 29 percent in 2005. In 2003, 42% of people volunteered at least annually, compared with 45% in 2005.

The activities of the voluntary sector in the UK are complex and diverse, including many organisations of different sizes and types. Some organizations are federal, some are vertical, some are bureaucratic, and others are collective, cooperative, networked, or federated. Some organizations operate on the basis of mutual assistance, some try to provide altruistic services, some are concerned with advocacy issues, and others serve exclusively their members. At the same time, local organizations are often linked through intermediary networks such as the voluntary service council, or through national organizations such as the joint council of voluntary organizations. There are large umbrella organizations in England, Scotland, wales and Northern Ireland, which are responsible for the management and service of national voluntary organizations. Among them, the English council of voluntary organizations is the most influential association of voluntary organizations in Britain, and even has some influence in Europe.

Founded in 1919, NCVO is the largest voluntary and community sector umbrella organization in England. In its early days, it was called the united council for social services in England. On April 1, 1980, after 60 years of development, the united council for social services in England was renamed the united council of voluntary organizations. At the time, the NCVO had three goals: to expand volunteer organizations' involvement in social issues; Becoming a resource centre for voluntary organizations; Protect the interests and independence of voluntary organizations. In terms of value, NCVO pursues "independence", "innovation", "cooperation", "inclusiveness" and "passion". Today, NCVO has fully become the "spokesperson" of voluntary organizations in England, and actively promotes the status of the voluntary sector in English society.

NCVO is a typical comprehensive intermediary organization, which is established from the bottom up. Under NCVO, there are many different alliances, such as the child care alliance, the elder care alliance... Wait a minute, below that are the individual institutions. These individual institutions are themselves small, but because of their large membership systems, many of them are themselves umbrella organizations, forming clusters of grapes. Under this structure, NCVO provides its members with customised services that cater not only to the needs of small voluntary and community organisations, as well as large voluntary and community organisations, but also to corporate and public sector organisations, as well as organisations outside the UK. The member organizations of NCVO have the advantages of service, information and policy influence. They have a strong identification with the umbrella organization and are willing to accept some of its rules and requirements, playing an important role in leading and developing the alliance.

NCVO charges membership fees to member organizations, and the pricing is based on annual revenue. Often, the smaller the membership organization, the lower the dues it submits. In addition, due to the diversity of NCVO members, the membership fee criteria are also diversified. According to the annual income of members, NCVO's member organizations are divided into four types: those with an annual income of less than 10,000 pounds are eligible for "community membership"; Small organisations with annual revenues of 10,000-50,000 can qualify for "community plus membership"; Organizations with an annual income of 50,000 to 1 million can obtain "full membership"; An organisation with an annual income of 1m or more will be eligible for "excess membership". Different types of organizations pay different dues and enjoy different services. But three basic services still exist. One is to provide members with time-saving and money-saving information. Second, to provide members with money-saving discount services; Third, it enables members to share networks and experiences through a strong community.

The NCVO represents about half of all voluntary sector workers in England. The NCVO is at the top of the hierarchy. Its main purpose is to advocate on behalf of different types of voluntary organizations and to promote social welfare. The members are independent voluntary organizations, and their relationship with NCVO is diverse and loose. At the beginning, not the NCVO members, but due to the accurate positioning, research in-depth, fully respect the opinions of the members, NCVO on relationship of policy advocacy and members are very successful, so the members were rising rapidly in recent years, which in turn enhances the NCVO's strength, the voluntary sector to the overall sound more effectively. NCVO is also the founder of many charities. It has a close relationship with government departments, local authorities, statutory and public bodies, the business sector, and the joint commission for volunteer service in Scotland, Northern Ireland and wales, as well as the European commission. As of August 2008, NCVO has more than 6,000 members, more than 280,000 individuals and more than 13 million volunteers working for these member organizations.

NCVO has a board of directors consisting of a chairman, three honorary officers, 23 directors and a supervisor. NCVO is run by administrative officials. At present, NCVO has a chief administrative officer, a deputy chief administrative officer, a business executive, a director of planning and resources, and a director of public policy. Among them, the chief administrative officer is responsible for all operations management; The deputy chief administrative officer is responsible for the capacity building of NCVO; The head of the enterprise is responsible for generating income, recruiting member organizations, and benefiting the voluntary and community sectors in the production of new products and services; The head of planning and resources is responsible for the organization's planning and financial management, providing internal services and supporting NCVO governance. The head of public policy is responsible for representing member organizations and other voluntary departments within the government, media, and stakeholders.

In the early 1990s, the UK voluntary sector earned about $28bn, or 17bn. These revenues come from many sources. For example, in terms of cultural and recreational volunteer organizations, the income they earn is much higher than that of government subsidies and private gifts. In education, research and volunteer organizations, government subsidies are the largest source of funding. On the individual level, their most important contribution to the voluntary sector is the donation of funds, especially for important social services. The NCVO's recent funding structure reflects this diversification.

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