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essay代写-Britain's balance of power diplomacy

2019-02-11 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- Britain's balance of power diplomacy讨论了英国的均势外交。均势外交指的是一种力量的均衡,即国家之间力量上的大体均衡,也是指国际竞争中的一种特殊的稳定状态,是处理国际关系的一种特殊手段和特殊政策。英国的均势外交由来已久,早在亨利八世时期就已初见端倪。英国的近代和现代外交实践也继续延续了其大陆均势政策。英国联合其他大陆国家不断变换阵营组合联盟,按照权力均衡原则,经过多年战争,重建欧洲均势。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

balance of power,英国均势外交,essay代写,代写,paper代写

Balance of power theory is the traditional theory with the greatest influence and the longest history in western international relations. Balance diplomacy refers to a balance of power, that is, the general balance of power between countries. It also refers to a special stable state in international competition and is a special means and policy to deal with international relations. The tradition of Britain's balance of power diplomacy has a long history. At that time, Britain was still weak. In order not to make its neighbors too strong and pose a threat to Britain, Henry viii strengthened his own strength and maintained the balance of power by making alliances in Europe, and finally guaranteed his own security. In order to restore the status of England in Calais, Henry viii tried to help Spain to fight against France. In fact, from the Norman conquest, William the conqueror and his successors have been focused on competing with other continental European countries for hegemony until the hundred years' war between Britain and France before Elizabeth. Only in the Elizabethan period did the transformation of foreign policy, which was based on the national interest rather than the dynastic interest, was completed. After the hundred years' war between Britain and France, Britain retreated from the European continent in an all-round way, its hegemonic complex on the continent changed, and its attention gradually shifted from the European continent to China, from land power to sea power. In the Elizabethan period, the main foreign policy of Britain put the realization of the independence and stability of England at the top of the diplomatic activities. For this reason, queen Elizabeth gave up her ambition to Calais, France, and did not interfere in the mainland affairs. She took measures to isolate herself from the mainland, actively developed the navy and explored overseas markets, so as to resist the threat from the mainland. In Cromwell's time, with the gradual enrichment of Britain's strength and diplomatic experience, the foreign balance policy had already seen its embryonic form. When the Dutch power grew and threatened Britain, Britain chose to ally with Sweden to fight against the Netherlands. Between Spain and France, Britain adopted a diplomatic strategy of balance of power in different forms but in the same essence. By taking advantage of the contradiction between France and Spain and the favorable situation of both France and Spain seeking for Britain, Britain united with France to fight against Spain and seize the Spanish colonies, thus creating a situation of balance of power more favorable to Britain.

Britain's modern and modern diplomatic practice has continued its continental balance of power policy. In the 18th century, as a traditional European power, France expanded its sphere of influence in Europe. Britain, together with other continental countries, constantly changed camps and formed alliances. According to the principle of balance of power, after years of war, it rebuilt the balance of power in Europe. After breaking napoleon's imperial dream in 1815, Europe established the Vienna system and established a balance of power dominated by Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria and France. This result not only ensures the homeland security of the British Isles, but also consolidates and strengthens Britain's economic, military and geostrategic advantages. British foreign policy in the second half of the 19th century was called "glorious independence". In terms of political factors, "glorious independence" is a manifestation of balanced diplomacy. It means that Britain does not conclude alliance treaties with continental powers with long-term obligations in time of peace, so that Britain can maintain freedom of movement in dealing with European affairs and be free from the constraint of expected alliances. In the modern era, especially after the World War I, Paris and Versailles established the new pattern of the European international system. Britain continued the tradition of balance of power diplomacy and maintained the balance of power on the European continent. From the convening of Paris peace conference in 1918 to the rise of Hitler in Germany in 1933, the foreign policy adopted by Britain in the European continent was mainly the diplomatic strategy of "supporting Germany and restraining France", and France became the main object of the balance of power of Britain during the two wars. After the second world war, the war led to the exhaustion of British resources, the decline of national strength, Britain lost the status of the world empire, and the international status and prestige of the Soviet union was growing day by day, the development of the European situation produced a situation that was conducive to the one-sided democratic forces of the Soviet union and eastern European countries. In the face of the rising political power of the Soviet union, it became the primary goal of Britain's post-war foreign policy to promote the union of Western Europe, win American aid, unite the United States against the Soviet union and rebuild the balance of power in Europe.

It can be seen from the British foreign policy towards Europe in the above-mentioned periods that the British diplomatic actions on the European continent always show the behavioral characteristics of being ambiguous or ambiguous. In the final analysis, this is determined by its tradition of balance of power diplomacy. The idea of "balance of power on the continent" runs through the whole process of British foreign policy. When the European continent was in flames of war, if Britain did not have its own directly related interests in the European continent, in most of the time, it took a detached attitude to stand by and let the European powers fight without intervention, showing a posture of isolationism. Later, when the comparison of political forces within the continent showed great disparity, Britain did not hesitate to adopt intervention policies to help the weak, so as to maintain the balance of power in the continent. Therefore, either isolationism or intervention policy is the manifestation of Britain's balance of power diplomacy, whose ultimate purpose is to maintain the balanced pattern of the European continent. At a time when the situation in Europe was changing rapidly, it was through the two foreign policies of isolation and intervention that Britain balanced and restricted various political forces on the European continent and maintained its own interests to the maximum extent. We can also see that although the specific form of foreign policy may change, Britain's foreign policy always focuses on safeguarding national interests, aims to prevent the emergence of hegemony, and maintains an ambiguous relationship with Europe. In fact, in essence, the ultimate goal of the balance of power policy is to pursue the maximization of national interests. As the saying goes, "there are no permanent Allies or permanent enemies, only permanent and unchangeable interests". For Britain, the balance of power on the continent is one of strength and national interest. But in addition, Britain's balance of power diplomacy, as a "traditional" foreign policy, also has its deep cultural origin. The British island-state mentality and the cultural factors such as the national characteristics formed under the influence of this psychology determine the British foreign policy in a deeper level.

Britain is an archipelago country in the Atlantic ocean, both off and near the continent. The distance between the British Isles and the European continent has created the contradictory island mentality of Britain. As an island country, Britain is faced with the internal reality of deep anxiety about the lack of space for survival and development in a small country and the external reality of being surrounded by the sea and having nowhere to hide when it is attacked and invaded. This inadequacy of internal and external requirements, coupled with the inherent insecurities of the island states, gave rise to the security needs of the United Kingdom and, as a result of these needs, produced a series of psychological and behavioral responses. However, the insularity mentality of Britain did not come into being suddenly, but gradually formed in the process of the development of British history. As is known to all, the history of Britain is a history of immigrants from the European continent to the island of England. These invading and immigrant peoples, together with the indigenous people, merged into one nation in the long history -- the English nation. As immigrants from mainland Europe, their ambitions for the continent never disappeared. In the long history of the middle ages, the "continental plot" of England was deeply rooted, which was deepened by William's conquest of England as the duke of Normandy. Driven by the continental plot, Britain occupied many territories and strongholds on the European continent and won infinite glory through military conquest. However, with the awakening of national consciousness of European countries, especially the defeat of Britain in the hundred years war between Britain and France, Britain had to leave the mainland helplessly and painfully. After the failure of the continental struggle, the British turned inward and set their sights on the wider sea. With the awakening of the national consciousness in England, the national psychology gradually took shape and developed towards the direction of island nation psychology, which was well reflected in the internal and external policies and foreign exchanges during the reign of Elizabeth I. During this period, Britain abandoned the previous diplomatic tradition of blindly pursuing mainland territory, faced up to the reality of island countries, and, while achieving its own independence and stability, vigorously developed its navy and looked forward to overseas expansion. While seeking for its own maritime power, it strives to maintain the balance of power in Europe and prevent the emergence of one or more super powers in Europe so as to ensure the interests of Britain. In a word, during the reign of Elizabeth, the psychology of island countries gradually took shape and was completed in the later period of her reign, which had a profound influence on the domestic and foreign affairs of Britain.

At the same time, the British nationality formed under the influence of the island mentality often shows some contradictory characteristics. These ambivalence also deeply influence the choice of British balance of power policy on the mainland. In view of the geographical location of island countries, compared with the mainland civilization, island countries have the characteristics of marginality, which creates the innate inferiority mentality of island countries. The inferiority heart consciousness produces the survival consciousness, which is obviously manifested as the survival crisis and crisis consciousness, and then makes the island nation have the strong enterprising spirit and transcendental consciousness. Just as the memory of being bullied in the early years of Britain has caused deep wounds in the hearts of the British people, the psychological performance is inferiority. In order to get rid of this inferiority mentality, they carried out a series of innovations, once established the world empire. Once the success, that kind of inferiority complex and performance of a sense of superiority or even arrogance. Britain has a history of superiority and an empire of conceit. As early as the 13th century, Britain formulated the magna carta, which opened the source of western constitutionalism. In the 17th century, the British established the constitutional monarchy in a stable and gradual way, established the rudiment of democratic politics, and set a model for the western capitalist democratic system. On the European stage, Britain first carried out the industrial revolution; In modern times, Britain played an important role in the development of capitalism and the spread of global capitalism. In the face of their own glorious history, the British naturally develop a sense of national pride and superiority rooted in their bones. In the heyday of the country, Britain once ruled a third of the earth's land, and had a powerful navy to maintain the empire's sea power, becoming a veritable "empire on which the sun never sets"; Since the 18th and 19th centuries, Britain was still the financial center of the world and had a decisive influence on the world economic situation. With her absolute advantages, Britain successfully controlled the situation in the European continent, which not only guaranteed the security of island countries, but also sought overseas expansion, and further consolidated its maritime hegemony and world advantages. The glory of this empire remained in the British nation, and this complex of superiority and conceit became a counterweight to foreign policy decisions. The British considered themselves superior to and stronger than other European nations, and Britain should be the dominant player in European affairs. Therefore, the new rising forces of the European continent challenged Britain. The goal of Britain's balance of power diplomacy is to play the leading role on the European stage indefinitely and to maintain Britain's inherent strategic advantages.

In a word, British tradition has formed the main melody of modern British diplomacy on the balance of power diplomacy in Europe. In the formation and continuation of British diplomatic tradition, culture has exerted a profound influence on British diplomatic value orientation and policy trend, although this influence is imperceptible. The island nation mentality and the unique values and ways of thinking in the British national character have a direct impact on Britain's balance of power diplomacy on the European continent. The traditional cultural research of Britain's balance of power diplomacy provides reference experience for Chinese culture and Chinese diplomatic research, which is beneficial for us to think rationally about the important value of Chinese culture and the strategy of its own cultural development.

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