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Essay代写:Informatization of American agriculture

2019-05-17 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Informatization of American agriculture,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国农业的信息化。美国作为世界电子信息产业的第一大国,农业信息化是在信息技术和市场经济高度发达的背景下,与整个社会的信息化同步发展的。美国政府以其雄厚的经济实力,从农业信息网络建设、农业信息资源开发利用和农业信息技术应用等方面全方位推进农业信息化建设,构建了五大政府信息机构为主体的国家、地区、州三级农业信息网,形成了完整、健全、规范的农业信息服务体系。

Informatization of American agriculture,美国农业信息化,英国代写,英国论文代写,essay代写

The modern agriculture foundation of developed countries is good, the informationization infrastructure is perfect, the industrialization degree is high, the market mechanism is perfect, the characteristics, the experience and the development rule of the foreign agricultural informationization development are analyzed deeply and systematicly, which has the important reference value in guiding our country to carry out the agricultural informationization work.

The United States is currently one of the most developed country in agriculture, before the industrial revolution, the intensification of agricultural production, automation, industrialization of agricultural management, organization, agricultural products marketing, electronic transactions, agricultural logistics systematization, agricultural socialization service, enterprise, agricultural management into the open, transparent, in-depth analysis of the United States in the agricultural production, management, information management and service features of our country has a reference significance for the construction of this aspect.

As the largest country in the electronic information industry in the world, agricultural informatization develops synchronously with the informatization of the whole society under the background of highly developed information technology and market economy. The U.S. government for its solid economic strength, from the agricultural information network construction, the agricultural information resources development and utilization and agricultural information technology application and so on omni-directional to promote agricultural informatization, constructed by national agricultural bureau, bureau of economic research, world agricultural outlook board, the agricultural market service and foreign agriculture and so on five big government information institutions as the main body of national, regional, state, three agriculture information network, formed a complete and perfect, standardization of agricultural information service system.

American government attaches great importance to the construction of agricultural informatization network infrastructure. Since the mid-1990s, American government has allocated 1.5 billion us dollars annually for the construction of agricultural informatization network for technology promotion and online application. In 2007 the number of American farms with Internet access rose from 51% in 2005 to 55%. The number of farms that own or rent computers rose to 59% from 55% in 2005. High-speed Internet is becoming more common in rural America, with the proportion using dial-up Internet dropping from 69% in 2005 to 47% today. ADSL, optical cable, satellite and wireless Internet are more widely used. The number of ADSL Internet users has reached 27 percent in rural areas, double that of 2005, and the number of optical cable, satellite and wireless Internet users has also increased to 7 percent.

With the rapid development of Internet and computer technology, the United States has realized the socialized sharing of agricultural data resources by using automatic control technology and network technology. In terms of the collection and storage of agricultural data resources, the United States takes the government as the main body to build a large-scale and influential agriculture-related information data center, and comprehensively collects, sorts out and preserves a large number of agricultural data resources related to the United States and the world. Take American AGNET system as an example: this system is the world famous agricultural computer network system at present. Created by the university of Nebraska in 1975, the system is owned by developers of more than 200 applications for a variety of USES, covering 46 states and connecting the U.S. department of agriculture, agriculture departments in 15 states, 36 universities and a large number of agribusinesses. Users can connect to and share AGNET data and software resources from their home phone, TV, or microcomputer with a dedicated device. In addition, AGRIS, produced by the food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, contain more than 100,000 references on agricultural science and technology; CRIS is an information research system that provides research abstracts from U.S. agricultural research institutes, test stations, and universities. The national crop variety resource information management system stores information on 600,000 plant resource samples and can provide services to breeders nationwide. In addition, the United States has national agricultural database, national oceanic and atmospheric administration database, geological survey database and other large-scale and influential agriculturally related information data centers. These databases implement the policy of "full and open" sharing, which brings high quality, high efficiency and high efficiency to American agricultural production.

COMAX/GOSSYM is one of the most successful agricultural expert systems in the United States. The system was developed by the United States department of agriculture and the national cotton council in October 1986 to recommend field management practices to cotton growers. It is a model-based expert system with a GOSSYM model that simulates the growth and development of cotton and the transfer of moisture and nutrients in the soil. The model has been successfully applied in cotton production areas such as the Mississippi River delta and the south Carolina coast. These areas are in the rainy season at the cotton harvest. By accurately informing the date of cotton ripening through the system, farmers can complete the cotton harvest before the arrival of the rainy season to obtain the highest yield. In recent years, the university of California, Davis has made further improvements to COMAX. The CALEX system they developed in the initial stage was used for cotton production management. The system is available on 450 California farms, called CALEX/COTTON. Later they made CALEX/PEACHES for peach garden management and CALEX/RICE for RICE production management. Among them, CALEX/RICE can retrieve data from meteorological database and California pesticide database through the Internet.

At present, the United States has developed some computer simulation decision system, and used in agricultural production, such as: the United States crop simulation system, in addition to simulate soil moisture change, crop growth, etc., but also can simulate the germination date and other development process; Florida state university developed the agricultural and environmental decision support system (ae-gis), which coupled crop simulation model with GIS. The university of Hawaii has developed a DSSAT system that integrates crop, soil and climate data, using simulation model techniques to evaluate different management measures and assess their impact on the environment and sustainable development. In addition, the U.S. department of agriculture's GPFARM system is based on a simulation model that integrates economic, environmental, and sustainable development goals to provide decision support to production decision makers.

American agricultural equipment design and manufacturing technology has become mature, agricultural equipment quickly to large, high-speed, double work, man-machine harmony and comfort design direction. A variety of intelligent agricultural equipment, such as harvesting, sowing, fertilizing and spraying machines, have entered the international market. Trimble ez-guide system and AutoSteer system can realize intelligent navigation and automatic driving in farmland operation. The CenterLine Guidance Lightbar system of mid-tech in the United States can navigate in a straight line and a curved line. FieldPilot, the company's operation control and automatic driving system, can be configured into precise variable fertilization, variable spray and other operation control systems as required, and realize intelligent navigation and automatic driving of operation engineering at the same time. In addition, Beeline Technologies' Beeline system, which enables autonomous driving, has been used and praised in large farms in North America. Compared with other precision agriculture operation systems, the application of farmland operation navigation system technology is simple and clear, without the need for prior information collection, data processing and decision analysis. Moreover, the application effect of automatic navigation system is determined and obvious, so it is easy to be adopted by large-scale commercial planting farmers. Beginning in 1995, the global positioning system -equipped combine harvester was used on some regional farms. With electronic sensors and global positioning satellites, these machines can record almost every square meter of output and other information during the harvest season without interruption. This allows the farm to map yields across the land and weed out low-yielding varieties. In 1996, 29 percent of U.S. farm service providers offered a gps-enabled sampling network; by 2002, that had increased to 50 percent. According to a 2007 survey conducted by purdue university, 76% of respondents used precision agriculture technology, among which 64% used GPS navigation system, 20% used geographic information system and satellite/aerial image data, and 10% used GPS autopilot system and soil conductivity measurement system.

The agricultural information service system of the United States mainly consists of four main bodies: the agricultural information collection and release system of government departments; Agricultural education and scientific research extension system supported by the government; A company system integrating scientific research, production and promotion; Farm - based civil self - service organization system.

Usda believes that if a large amount of market and production information is not organized by government departments, the fairness, timeliness and authenticity of information use cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, although many private companies release market information to the society, the ministry of agriculture has established a huge market information network throughout the country to collect and release official information. Since its establishment in 1862, the United States department of agriculture has formed a large, complete and sound information system and established a global electronic information network with advanced means and extensive access. The agricultural information system in the United States is made up of five departments: the national bureau of agricultural statistics service and state agricultural statistics offices; Bureau of economic research; World agricultural prospects committee; Agricultural market service bureau; foreign agricultural bureau. Respectively responsible for collecting, processing, and processing the national and global agricultural information, the coordination of the United States department of agriculture commodity forecasting project and remote sensing, provide market research report, the present situation and economic statistical data and special reports, for the agriculture to provide comprehensive, accurate, objective state agricultural information and services, to ensure that the dominant position in the American agricultural products in the world market.

The system mainly includes two departments: one is the agricultural research service of the federal department of agriculture, which includes the national academy of agricultural sciences and the national agricultural library. The national agricultural library has a national agricultural website information center, agricultural database and technical standard database. Second is to grant land university as the center, with the county cooperation promotion system. The extension of scientific research results is mainly carried out through the agricultural cooperative extension station established by the land-grant university and the first cooperation.

Mainly some private of large or multinational companies, they are the executive main body of agricultural commercialization, industrialization of science and technology, mainly concentrated in the field of development and commercialization of innovative technology, integrating scientific research, promotion, management, by providing technical and externality of the smaller products to make profits, is a kind of fully market-oriented behavior.

This self-organized non-governmental agricultural socialized service provides strong peripheral protection for American agricultural products to dominate the domestic and foreign markets. This kind of civil organization is a variety of professional associations, which focus on providing macro, wide range, long-term countermeasures and methods; The other is the private nature of the dominant decision-making advisory institutions, which mainly focus on providing micro, specific, short-term, deep into each link of agriculture services. The two constitute the socialized service system of American folk agriculture.

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