欢迎来到51Due,请先 | 注册
关注我们: 51due论文代写二维码 51due论文代写平台微博
英国论文代写,英国essay代写知名品牌微信

Essay代写范文

为您解决留学中生活、学习、工作的困难、疑惑
释放自我

英国essay代写:Britain's prison reform movement

2019-05-17 | 来源:51due教员组​ | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- Britain's prison reform movement讨论了英国的监狱改革运动。工业革命时期,英国经历了一场旷日持久的监狱改革运动。一方面,监狱逐渐取代死刑与流放,成为最主要的刑罚方式;另一方面,混乱的监狱变为拥有规章条例的改造场所,监狱的控制权从地方转到中央。新的监狱体系乃是英国社会环境变化及政治权力重构的必然产物,是国家权力强化和政府集权化、官僚化的象征。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

prison reform movement,英国监狱改革运动,essay代写,代写,paper代写

During the industrial revolution, Britain experienced a protracted prison reform movement. On the one hand, prison gradually replaced death penalty and exile as the most important method of punishment. Chaotic prisons, on the other hand, have become places of regulatory reform, with control of prisons shifting from local to central. The new prison system is the inevitable result of the change of social environment and the reconstruction of political power in Britain.

The British prison reform movement at the end of 18th century and the beginning of 19th century not only occupies an important position in the western legal history, but also has great significance in the British modernization process. Western scholars have paid much attention to the prison reform movement which has lasted for a hundred years and formed different analytical models. Until the 1960s and 1970s, reformist historians emphasized the role of reformers and ideological and cultural factors in the prison reform movement. Radzinowiez explores the tireless efforts of prison reformers to create a humanitarian penal system; Webbs attributes the improvement of prisons to the humanitarianism of the British gentry, bentham's utilitarianism and the activities of religious philanthropists. They are less concerned with the broad social environment, with the suspicion of teleology and one-dimensional theory. From the 1960s and 1970s, revisionist historians re-examined the prison reform movement under the precondition of paying attention to the analysis of social background, and noted the practical considerations of the reformers. According to Rothman, the rapid growth of the British population and the loss of community morals after the independence of the north American colonies led to serious poverty and crime, and the mainstream society had to deal with it with the modern prison system. Ignatieff sees the new prison system as a tool for the industrial bourgeoisie, evangelicals, and philanthropists to try to establish a dependency relationship between the rich and the poor and make them mutually liable. Although Rothman and igna-tieff's explanation does not lack for class rule, both deny that the 19th-century prison system was a new form of coercion and social control. Foucault, who also holds the revisionist view, pointed out that prison is a part of the political power construction of the bourgeoisie and the core of the whole social discipline mechanism.

The above research results show the different perspectives of the prison reform movement and provide us with rich references for the in-depth study of this movement. However, they either overstate the role of prison reformers, or pay too much attention to the internal mode of operation of prisons and the influence of the ruling class on penal legislation, but ignore the demands of the transitional society and the evolution of the state management institutions themselves. In view of this, this essay attempts to re-expound the prison reform movement in the period of British industrial revolution on the basis of the existing research results, and further explains that the new prison system is the inevitable result of the social environment changes caused by the industrial revolution, and the symbol of the strengthening of state power and the centralization and bureaucratization of the government.

Prisons have long existed in Britain as places of detention for prisoners. Until the end of the 18th century, however, the role of prisons in British penal code was negligible. Prisons are in the hands of local governments and are rarely used for punitive purposes. Capital punishment and exile are more common in Britain.

In the 18th century, the British believed that the death penalty was the best way to punish the wicked for disturbing the social order. In the first place, the health of a social organism depends on the proper functioning of its components. "The sword of justice needs to be used to remove the corrupt from the community. In addition, the execution of death penalty in public places not only shows the process of serving the sentence of criminals and the justice of the judiciary, but also in the simplest way to deter the masses and effectively prevent potential criminal ACTS. The death penalty has the decapitation, the hanging and so on many forms, the execution scene is cruel; After the death of the victim, his body or head must be hung in public places of assembly, continue to play a warning, deterrent function. In the 18th century, the number of death sentences in Britain exploded. "The black decree of 1723 added 50 new offences punishable by death. By the early 19th century, the death penalty had been applied to more than 200 crimes.

The use of exile in Britain dates back to the late 16th century and was used on a large scale in the 18th and 19th centuries. From the government's point of view, exile was economically feasible, demonstrating both legal tolerance and success in removing troublemakers from society. 1718 the British government enacted the act of exile. By 1776, about 50,000 British criminals had been exiled to the American colonies. "About 60 percent of men and 48 percent of women who have not been sentenced to death are in exile." Exile was suspended for a time after the war of independence broke out in North America. 1786 the British government established a new penal colony in botany bay, south wales. "From 1787 to 1867. About 160,000 criminals arrived in Australia on 821 ships.

In 18th-century England, prisons were reserved for debtors, detainees and felons awaiting execution. At the time, there were more than 300 prisons in Britain, large and small, run by local governments. They were generally built on top of walls or bunkers, and most consisted of a single gatehouse and a cell, small and sparsely furnished. Some are crumbling from years of neglect. "The administration of prisons belongs to magistrates and sheriffs, but very few of them are willing to undertake this thankless task and contract it out to the jailers." Prison guards are unpaid and earn most of their income from fees paid by criminals. The prison thus became largely a self-functioning economic institution, with guards exploiting every opportunity to extract profits from criminals. The cost of food and drink is borne by the prisoners themselves. Those without money can only starve to death. When a prisoner has completed his sentence, he has to pay a release fee. According to John Howard, to get out of bedfordshire prison, the prisoner "must pay the jailer fifteen shillings and four pence, and two shillings to the man who holds the key." Prison guards also collect fees for visiting prisoners, bedding and selling beer in prisons, worsening an already corrupt atmosphere.

Mercenary jailers paid little attention to the sanitary conditions of the prison, and magistrates and sheriffs made even fewer visits. The prison was dark and damp, stinky, dusty, and full of germs; Food is often spoiled, drinking water is scarce and the health of offenders is seriously threatened. Nearly every prisoner suffers from "prison fever" -- typhus and smallpox are common, and prisons are often the birthplace of infectious diseases. In 1730. When Lent circuit court in Taunton let the fever of criminals spread to the courtroom, "Lord chancellor Baron Pengeuy, attorney James Sheppard, sheriff John pig-ot, and hundreds of juries were killed."

British prisons of the 18th century held a mixed population of convicts. Imprisonment of petty offenders together with felons; The first offender shall be imprisoned together with the recidivist; Male prisoners and female prisoners shall be imprisoned together; Violent offenders are held alongside ordinary ones; Prisoners who are healthy are locked up with those who have infectious diseases. The mixture of criminals leads to moral corruption and rampant promiscuity in prisons. At that time, the prison did not pay attention to the reform of criminals, and did not provide labor opportunities. The criminals did not do anything, but spent the whole day drinking, gambling, arguing and fighting to kill time.

In short, until the end of the 18th century, the official purpose of punishment in Britain was mainly to punish criminals, but also to punish evil and deter deviance. Capital punishment and exile are the main forms of punishment. Prisons are still just temporary places to hold people, dirty, chaotic and without effective management. With the industrial revolution, this penal system is increasingly challenged.

With the invention and wide application of machines, Britain entered the period of industrial revolution, with rapid economic development, rapid urbanization and surging population flow. As the rural population continued to move to towns, a number of new industrial cities emerged in Britain. The advancement of industrialization and urbanization has brought about many new social problems and at the same time impacted and changed the original power structure.

In the process of urbanization in Britain, the moral norms that existed in the rural community have gradually lost their binding force. In the city, all kinds of people from all directions gather together, they are strange to each other, and there are few emotional and moral restraints, thus creating conditions for crime. The existence of a large number of floating property and hiding places in cities also objectively stimulates crimes. Thefts and personal injury cases were on the rise in Britain since the late 18th century. "Between 1805 and 1842, the number of crimes officially reported increased nearly sevenfold." At this time, the death penalty has been unable to cope with the urban crime wave. On the one hand, for petty theft, the punishment of sacrificing one's life is too cruel; On the other hand. The need for cheap Labour was growing in the factory system, and the death penalty was not in the interests of the new industrial bourgeoisie. In this context, people began to call for penal reform, envisaging the prison as a place to punish criminals and transform them into labor camps.

As the industrial revolution advanced, so did the British public's understanding of freedom, state power and prisons. They were born free in the 18th century British idea. They did not want a strengthened monarchy or a strong central government, which would have trampled on their personal and property rights. Willimn Thornton expressed such concerns about the formation of a standing army. In time of peace, no country should maintain its army. Sooner or later it will be used to enslave the people and infringe upon their freedom. Prisons, in particular, violate the right of britons to be "born free". By the 19th century, the growth of cities and their populations required governments to provide new social services, such as education and employment opportunities, to address unemployment, poverty, crime, and municipal construction such as roads and sewers. These changes cannot but lead to new considerations of freedom and the functioning of the state and to an emphasis on the need for an exchange of responsibilities between society and the individual. According to the utilitarian John mill, first of all, the actions of individuals are responsible for the well-being of society as a whole; Second, governments should exercise limited intervention to protect individual freedoms. "The state, on the one hand, shall respect the individual liberty of every man in his own particular matter; but on the other hand, it shall be obliged to maintain an attentive control over the powers which it permits every man to exercise over others." The state was thus entitled to deprive the liberty of those who violated the happiness of others.

At the same time, migration and urbanization make it difficult for government functions to function effectively at the local level, such as poverty alleviation. In the 18th century, the work of helping the poor in England was carried out by magistrates, with parishes as the unit, and each Briton had the right to receive aid only in his or her birthplace. The rapid industrial revolution changed the demographics of Britain, and many of the new industrial cities had no church of England or church, leaving a vacuum for poor law. In 1834, the British parliament promulgated the amendment to the poor law, and established the central poor law committee, which united the dioceses, greatly weakened the original poverty relief power of magistrates, and established the principle of the state's ultimate responsibility. Inefficient prisons run by local governments are also under fire.

And the evolution of government itself has made the state increasingly able to plan for local prisons. The frequent wars of the 18th century, first the war of the Austrian succession, then the war of the French and the war of independence in the north American colonies, led to the centralization of state power in the central executive. In the Napoleonic wars, "the British put in about 237,000 troops, far more than the 45, 000 in the seven years' war 45 years ago." Large-scale wars can no longer rely on local finance and militia groups alone. They need effective military and financial mechanisms and professional personnel. Under this impetus, the government departments move towards centralization and bureaucratization. As the power of the state grew, the central government tried to clean up the ineffectual local prisons and dominated the British prison reform movement. The continuous intervention of the central government and the establishment of a new prison system under state control were the typical characteristics of the British prison reform movement during the industrial revolution.

The clarion call of the British prison reform movement is for the death penalty. 1767 "on crime and punishment" by beccaria was published in English. He pointed out that "the spectacle of the execution of a criminal, terrible as it is, is but a temporary one. If the criminal is made a convict of servitude, and allowed to make up for the society he has invaded with his own labor, then this example of the loss of liberty is permanent and painful, and is the most powerful means of arresting the criminal." Meanwhile, Fielding, the met's commissioner, "notes with some regret that 'combining the idea of death with the idea of shame is not as easy as it seems'". After 1815, capital punishment was discredited in Britain. Under Robert peel, the interior minister, "the number of death sentences in Britain has been reduced from 278 to eight". By the 1830s, few criminals were publicly executed except murderers. 1868 public executions were abolished in Britain.

Exile has also been questioned. In a letter to peel, Sydney Smith wrote that exile allowed convicts to "leave the harsh living conditions and the overcrowding of their home countries for a Promised Land of growing labor demand" but, in fact, "the court's decision to send convicts into exile was intended to serve as a warning of what had happened to them." However, the reform began early. The courts still use exile more because it is "generally local and communal, requiring minimal intervention by the central government".

The decline of the death penalty and exile has been accompanied by a focus on prisons. In the late 18th century, a group of advocates for prison reform emerged in Britain. They expose the bad condition of the prison, emphasize the reform function of the prison, and suggest to strengthen the function of the prison in the penalty. In 1777, John Howard published his book the state of prisons in England and wales, which quickly put prison reform in the spotlight. 1779 the British government passed the prison act, creating a commission of William blackstone, William aton, and Howard to reform prisons. The failure of the prison act, the first attempt at prison reform by the central government, shows that the country is not equipped to lead the prison reform movement.

During the industrial revolution, the rise in crime rates caused by industrialization and urbanization, as well as the new understanding of freedom, triggered a reflection on the old penal system, and a prison reform movement emerged. In this movement, on the one hand, prison gradually replaced the death penalty and exile as the most important method of punishment; Chaotic prisons, on the other hand, have become places of regulatory reform, with control of prisons shifting from local to central. The new prison system is the result of the strengthening of state power and the symbol of the centralization and bureaucratization of the British government.

要想成绩好,英国论文得写好,51due代写平台为你提供英国留学资讯,专业辅导,还为你提供专业英国essay代写,paper代写report代写,需要找论文代写的话快来联系我们51due工作客服QQ800020041或者wechatAbby0900吧。

我们的优势

  • 05年成立,已帮助上万人
  • 24小时专业客服
  • 团队成员都毕业于全球著名高校
  • 保证原创,支持检测

英国站