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英国essay代写:The unfairness of British higher education

2019-05-18 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

本篇essay代写- The unfairness of British higher education讨论了英国高等教育的不公平。尽管英国的高等教育参与率较高,但其入学机会却并不平等,这主要体现在社会与经济地位较低的群体参与率过低。在近半个世纪里,英国高等教育整体参与率的增长并没有显著地促进高等教育入学机会的公平。相反,贫富群体之间入学率的差距在这个高等教育规模增长的过程中甚至有所扩大。本篇essay代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

British higher education,英国高等教育的不公平,essay代写,代写,paper代写

Although the UK has a high participation rate in higher education, its access to education is not equal, which is mainly reflected in the low participation rate of groups with low social and economic status. Over the past half century, the increase in overall participation in UK higher education has not significantly improved the equity of access to higher education. On the contrary, some studies indicate that the gap in enrollment between the rich and poor has even widened as the scale of higher education has grown.

Because the scale expansion of British higher education system has gone through a long process, it has a long history and abundant data in the study of the expansion and equity of higher education, and has produced a number of valuable studies. Observing these British experiences can help us reflect on the equality of opportunity in higher education.

Higher education in Britain has long been enjoyed mainly by students from wealthy families. Table 1 shows the enrolment rate of UK higher education from 1992 to 2001 by social class. As can be seen from table 1, the enrollment rate of students from class A reached 79% in 2001, compared with only 15% for students from class E. Between 1992 and 2001, enrollment in higher education experienced an overall increase in all class groups, from 71 percent to 79 percent for class A, and from 9 percent to 15 percent for class E. For example, in 1992, the chances of A class A student entering higher education were 9 times that of A class E student, but it decreased to 5 times in 2001. However, the absolute increase of the enrollment rate of the middle and lower class is still smaller than that of the upper middle class. For example, the absolute difference between the enrollment rate of the class A to C1 and the enrollment rate of the class C2 to E increased from 26 percentage points in 1992 to 31 percentage points in 2001.

In addition to the unfairness of higher education access revealed by the classification of family and social class, there are also problems of unequal access to higher education in different regions. According to a report by the higher education funding council for England, for example, the participation rate in youth higher education in London reached 36% in 2000, compared with 24% in the North-East of England, and the gap is widening. At the smaller end of the scale, the difference is even more pronounced, with participation in junior higher education at just 8% in north Nottingham and Sheffield bledside, for example, compared with 69% in London's kensington and Chelsea. The report also found that 20 per cent of children living in the richest areas have five to six times more access to higher education than 20 per cent of those living in the poorest areas, depending on their wealth.

In addition to differences in overall enrolment, opportunities for higher education are also reflected in differences in access to different types of universities, such as research versus non-research, top-ranked versus lower-ranked universities, and, in particular, Oxbridge versus other universities. In general, the more research-based, top-ranked universities have a higher proportion of students from wealthy families.

At university college London Blanden and Machin research concludes that in the 70 s to the 90 s, and the expansion of higher education in Britain did not mean to benefit the rich and the poor students, though indeed expansion of higher education increases the chances of poor students receive higher education, but the outcome of the expansion of higher education more enjoyed by students from rich families, which further exacerbated the already existing the unfair of admission.

The expansion of higher education in Britain from the 1960s to 1998 was carried out in the context of free higher education. Looking at the UK, it is clear that even when universities do not charge any tuition fees, there is still a huge gap between the enrolment rates of students from rich and poor families, and this gap continued to increase in the late 1980s and early 1990s when there was no tuition fees. So what is it about the expansion of higher education that makes the extra places available to more affluent students, without any tuition fees? Why is there such a huge difference in higher education enrolment, especially at top universities, between rich and poor students, even when universities charge nothing?

In the UK, Independent School is a part of the education system, whose main source of income is tuition fees. Students can be recruited selectively according to their performance. State School does not charge tuition fees, and Grammer School can choose students, and Comprehensive School cannot choose students. Partly because they can charge high fees, private schools often offer better education than public ones. A study by the London school of economics, for example, found that private schools educate only 7% of Britain's students but employ 14% of its teachers. The ratio in private schools was 9 to 1 on average, compared with 18 to 1 in public schools. Private schools have smaller classes and more subjects; Private schools have better teachers than public ones, and so on, as measured by whether teachers have graduate degrees.

The high cost of private schools determines that most of their students come from wealthy families, so students from poor families lose the opportunity to enter private schools for higher quality basic education in the first place. So are the rich and poor students equally divided in the tuition-free public secondary schools?

In British schools, during the period of school students from poor families can get lunch provided by the government funding, because only meet is undergoing income support, job subsidies and income does not exceed a certain amount of conditions of families to qualify for a free lunch, use can be regarded as a free lunch or not is to display the rich and the poor condition of students of the proxy variable, and use the ratio of the number of free lunch in the school can also show the students overall between the rich and the poor condition.

Using data from 2003, the Sutton Trust looked at the top 200 state schools in the UK with the highest GCSE results, and extrapolated the figures based on the proportion of pupils using free lunches in those schools. The average proportion of pupils using free meals in all of Britain's public schools is 14.3%, compared with 3% in the 200 best public schools and less than 2% in two-thirds of them. Eighty percent of the best public schools are grammar schools. Given that grammar schools can choose pupils before they are admitted, it is understandable that a large proportion of the schools with the best test scores are grammar schools. The proportion of free meals at these grammar schools was just 2.1%, and the proportion of general schools without pupils was 6.0%.

In public schools, there are fewer poor students in grammar schools where students can choose, which may be because of the relationship between family socio-economic background and student achievement. Some studies have shown that wealthier students have higher grades and are therefore more likely to pass grammar school entrance exams. At the same time, parents from wealthier families may have higher expectations of their children or better knowledge of the exam system, so children from wealthier families are more likely to take grammar school entrance exams.

For the country's 39 best comprehensive schools, the average free lunch rate was higher than for grammar schools, but still below the national average. Since comprehensive schools cannot test applicants for admission, the link between achievement and socioeconomic status does not apply, so there must be other factors that make their students richer than the average in their area.

Overall, families in Britain's top 200 public schools are much better off than the national average. In other words, even for public schools that don't charge fees, poor students have a much lower chance of getting into good schools than their wealthier counterparts, regardless of whether they have entrance exams.

Students from poor family, poor areas into the possibility of a good high school students, rich areas below wealthy families, they accept education will affect their test scores, and the differences between test scores and will affect the enrollment of higher education, make the students in poor areas or poor families to enter university, and the possibility of a good university is lower than the rich regions or affluent students.

While students from better schools are more likely to achieve higher test scores, the difference in scores does not explain the overall difference in admissions, which means that the difference in student achievement is not the only factor contributing to the difference in enrollment.

For two students who scored the same but came from different classes, students from higher social classes were far more likely to attend research universities than students from lower social classes, according to a study called "the vanishing 3,000." The report found that 45 percent of private school students with grades A and B went to research universities, while only 26 percent of public school students with the same grades went to research universities. It should be noted that the tuition fees of British research universities and non-research universities are basically the same.

The Sutton Trust calculated the top university entry rate for secondary schools in England between 2002 and 2006. The entry rate is calculated by dividing the number of students entering the 13 highest-ranked universities in the UK over the five years by the total number of students entering higher education over the five years.

Figure 1 shows the situation of the school sending students to 13 top universities. It can be seen from the figure that the admission rate of top universities is in direct proportion to their students' test scores. The higher the students' test scores are, the higher the admission rate of top universities will be. But even with identical test scores, students from private schools are more likely to attend top universities than those from public schools.

The table shows, in a statistical way, the differences between different types of secondary school enrolment. Although the best 30 private and public grammar schools have an average a-level gap of only about 1 per cent, the private schools' top universities and Oxbridge have much higher enrolment rates than public grammar schools, almost twice as many as public grammar schools and 10 times as many as public comprehensive schools. The 13 top universities in private schools have actual enrolment rates about half as high as they should, the 13 top universities in public comprehensive schools have actual enrolment rates half as high as they should, and Oxbridge's actual enrolment rates are less than a third of what they should be.

These results show that schools with the same test scores have different rates of enrolment at Oxbridge and research universities. Some schools are significantly overenrolled and some are significantly underenrolled. So why do private and public grammar schools differ so much in actual enrolment at the top 13 universities, especially Oxbridge, when there is little difference in test scores? And public comprehensive schools have so much lower enrollment than they should?

It can be seen from the table that although private schools accounted for only 7% of all students, they accounted for 44.5% of the total enrollment of Oxford University in 2007. There are two reasons for this. One is that the success rate of private school students is higher than that of public school students. The second is that 34 percent of all applications come from private schools.

Both schools have come under public criticism for their high proportion of private pupils in Oxbridge. But the two schools have said without discrimination of any kind of students, such as Oxford University, made it clear that the "commitment to admit the brightest and the best students, regardless of their marital status, race, nationality, color, religion or social background", also not powerful evidence to prove that these two universities in the admissions process for public school students systematic discrimination.

When students in private and public schools excel in academic performance, the expectation of students themselves and the advice and guidance they receive may lead to this phenomenon. Many private schools, as well as the best public schools, offer special guidance and learning programs to students, so that they have enough information and time to choose the schools and majors that best suit their interests and talents. Among private schools, students with the potential to enter the universities of Oxford and Cambridge are supported and encouraged by the university. The university and teachers will help them choose the most suitable major, help them draw up personal resumes and prepare for the interview in Oxbridge, and write professional recommendation letters for students. However, teachers in public schools usually lack the understanding of Oxbridge's special entrance examination system. Some schools never admit students to Oxbridge, and the teachers in these schools are not able to spend special time to help students with special tutoring and preparation.

In addition, there are some studies that show that some very good students in public schools do not want to go to Oxbridge or other research universities. Some students in public schools think that research universities are for affluent students, that they are not for them, or that they cannot make friends at these universities. As a result, some students from poor families prefer to go to universities with more students in similar situations. Studies have shown that students in public schools have limited information about universities and do not know enough about university rankings, which may also result in students not knowing that they can attend higher level schools. There are also some students who mistakenly believe that good universities charge more and do not apply.

On the other hand, some public school students may decide not to attend research universities with sufficient information. For example, some students think that they should go to non-research universities with their best friends in public schools. Some students think that the university like Oxbridge is complicated, old and dull, while they prefer a relaxed atmosphere and a campus with modern buildings. In addition, some new universities do have very high quality of education. Some new universities offer more flexible and application-oriented courses, and some students can give full play to their talents in these universities, while these schools are not considered as "top universities", maybe because of the university ranking and social prejudice.

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