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Essay代写:American natural literature

2019-05-22 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- American natural literature,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的自然文学。自然文学,指的是以自然为主题的写作,这一概念本身的内涵十分丰富,它是在美国特殊的自然和人文背景下产生的一种文学。自然文学之所以引人注目,是因为它的新颖和独特。美国的自然文学最典型的表达方式是以第一人称为主,以写实的方式来描述作者由文明世界走进自然环境那种身体和精神的体验。另外,美国自然文学的意义在于它的创新。

As a literary genre, American natural literature, although traditionally influenced by European romanticism, was born in the "new world" civilization of America and naturally had characteristics that could not be found in any other country. American natural literature originated in the 17th century and was founded in the 19th century.

Natural literature, in its literal sense, is nothing more than writing on the theme of nature. But the connotation of this concept itself is very rich. It is a kind of literature produced under the special natural and humanistic background of America. Natural literature stands out for its novelty and uniqueness. In form, it belongs to non-fiction prose literature, mainly in prose, diary and other forms. From the perspective of content, it mainly reflects on the relationship between human beings and nature. In short, the most typical expression of American natural literature is the first person, which describes the author's physical and spiritual experience of entering the natural environment from the civilized world in a realistic way.

The significance of American natural literature lies in its innovation. In the tradition of western civilization, people always tend to separate spirit from material, self from environment, and man from nature and treat them differently. The development of American natural literature is to integrate spirit and material, self and environment, and human and nature. It is from the original pure natural history, to the literature into the natural history; From the early natural prose, which mainly explored nature and individual thought and behavior, to the contemporary natural literature, which advocated the co-existence of human and nature. We can say that from the development trend of American natural literature, we can see the evolution of human civilization.

Natural literature as a concept came into being in modern times, but it was formed in a rather long historical process and has its historical origin.

Both John Smith's New England and William Bradford's the development of Plymouth in the 17th century were written in descriptive prose with a fresh and simple language full of vigor and vitality, which laid the foundation for the unique style of natural literature in the future.

In his autobiography and images of holy things, 18th-century Jonathan Edwards boldly integrated the inner spiritual experience with the external natural landscape, showing metaphorically that god made the whole material world "the shadow of the spiritual world". Another influential figure of the 18th century, William bartrame, was called "the first man to gain a reputation in the literary world of Europe and America". His magnum opus, travel notes, not only reflects the author's philosophy as a man of nature, but also has an impact on romanticism in Europe. It is generally accepted that natural prose did not become a unique style until the late 18th century, with the publication of bartrame's travel notes as a mark of its own coming into being.

It was only in the 19th century, with the emergence of such works as Thomas cole's essays on the American landscape and Ralph Waldo Emerson's on nature, that American writers began to use the landscape of the new world as a source of literature and art. Before that, American writers and artists often looked to the European continent to seek the cultural foundation of literary and artistic creation. Cole concludes in "essays" that America's connections are not based on the past, present and future. If Europe represents culture, America represents nature. Americans born and raised in the land of nature should seek the source of culture and art from nature. It was based on this idea that cole created the Hudson River school of painting in the United States, put forward the declaration of "using nature as canvas", and attracted a group of painters who Emerson called nature with "new eyes". Later, the works of this school of painting and American natural literature played a complementary role.

For a long time, Emerson's spirit and his humanistic thoughts have been the focus of American culture and literature. But at present, there are not many people who take "Emerson and nature" as the theme to explore and discuss. In fact, no matter from Emerson's transcendentalism and its works, or from his life and diary, it is not difficult to see his special feelings and close connection to nature. In the case of Emerson, his first work was on nature. He refined Edwards's argument, making it clear that "nature is the symbol of the spirit."

Henry David Thoreau's walden topped the American heritage magazine's list of "the ten books that make up the American character" in 1985. He is regarded as an icon of American culture and the country's most influential nature writer. His spirit is regarded as a heritage of American culture. Walden became the model for many of Thoreau's followers to aspire to and emulate. Thoreau is generally regarded as Emerson's "saint." In terms of their roles in natural literature, they have similar souls. From a modern perspective, Thoreau's role in American natural literature seems to be more significant than Emerson's. Thoreau not only put Emerson's theory into practice, he was one step ahead of Emerson. He foresaw the contradiction between industrial civilization and nature and put forward the view that "only in the wilderness can we protect the world".

American natural literature had a new development in the 20th century. Before the 20th century, natural literature had a strong color of idealism, and its authors held an optimistic and enterprising attitude towards nature, hoping to seek the liberation of personality, cultural roots and spiritual sublimation from it. However, their thinking and writing were still limited to the categories of nature and self or the thought and behavior of nature and individuals. Only in the 20th century, with the emergence of cross-century natural literature writers such as John burroughs, John muir and Mary austen, did natural literature develop a broader prospect. At this time, natural literature began to show the relationship between nature and human, and the harmony between human and ecology.

In terms of breadth, the natural literature of the 20th century is no longer limited to the east coast of the United States, but covers almost the entire United States. With the emergence of female writers such as austen, dillard and Williams, the field of natural literature dominated by men began to have female voices. Taking different regions as the background and using different voices to describe the state of nature, American natural literature has formed a multi-dimensional combination, thus appearing colorful and lively. From the perspective of depth, since most of the natural literature writers in the 20th century have mastered the knowledge of natural science and human ecology, they have undoubtedly gained a deeper insight than their predecessors. On an abandoned farm in Wisconsin, aldo Leopold introduced the concept of "land ethics" and called for the cultivation of an "ecological conscience". In the uninhabited western desert, Edward Abbey proposed a new model of harmony between human and nature: opposition-compromise-balance. Terry t. Williams, on the edge of the salt lake, called on people to see wilderness as an emotion, to love wilderness as one loves one. In the eyes of contemporary nature writers, the relationship between man and nature is no longer "I and it", but "I and you". They believe that there is no simple self, but only the self integrated with the ecological environment they live in. What they believe is no longer "survival of the fittest", but "symbiosis".

In a word, natural literature is in the form of literature, arousing people's awareness of harmonious coexistence with the ecological environment and inspiring people to seek a noble and magnificent spiritual realm. In aesthetics, it shows the natural and fresh, unique aesthetic orientation. Exploring this field will be as exciting as discovering new lands by European settlers.

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