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基于施瓦茨跨理论对西北地区大学生价值观的实证研究

2016-12-08 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Essay代写范文

英国Essay代写论文精选:“基于施瓦茨跨理论对西北地区大学生价值观的实证研究”,这篇论文主要对西北地区大学生的价值观进行了实证研究及分析。论文通过施瓦茨跨理论对大学生的价值观进行了实证研究和分析,通过研究发现,西北地区(陕西和甘肃)的中国90年代后代(年龄在17-26岁之间)观察到的结构符合施瓦茨跨理论的个人层次价值理论。

 

Introduction

 

Background of the Study 

 

In an increasingly globalized and more competitive world, the ability to interact with members of other cultures has become a requisite skill. Interaction across cultures requires special  skills  for  communication,  cooperation,  negotiation,  and  joint  problem  solving. These interaction implicate the values that people bring to the social relationship. In other words, values, which are considered as the core concepts of culture, are inevitably involved in the process of communication. What’s more, values have play an increasing important role  in  guiding  people’s  verbal  and  nonverbal  behaviors.  Therefore,  people’s  values  and behaviors may have changed to some extent, dramatically, or slightly. Up to now, there has been a large amount of research on different values in the globalized world. For instance, there are research on Jewish adolescent values (cf., Saroglou & Hanique, 2006), Lebanese youth values (cf. Harb, 2010), and Taiwanese student values (cf. Lee, 2010). Besides that, several  big  and  influential  projects  have  been  carried  out,  such  as  the  European  Values Study and the Shanghai Chinese Values Project (SCVP). Furthermore, following the most successful wave in the history of WVS (World Value Study) - the sixth waves of surveys, WVSA  (World  Values  Survey  Association)  began  planning  the  7th  wave  to  be  conducted worldwide in 2016-2018. As  values  have  been  investigated  extensively,  several  influential  and  significant values  theories  have  also  been  made.  Among  them,  Schwartz’s  values  framework  has probably  been  the  most  theoretically  driven  and  comprehensively  assessed  one  and  thus drawing increasing attention in mainland China. To be specific, the content, structure and instruments  of  Schwartz’s  values  theory  have  been  extensively  utilized  to  examine  the value  orientations  and  value  priorities  of  the  Chinese.  To  take  theses  of  the  graduate students  in  Shanghai  International  Studies  University  as  an  example,  those  theses  have already  stared  to  relate  Schwartz’s  theory  to  Chinese  samples  (e.g.,  Wang,  2009;  Zhong, 2010;  Liu,  2011).  Nevertheless,  this  theory  is  less  empirically  employed  in  China’s northwest  regions.  Accordingly,  this  study  will  relate  to  Schwartz  values  theory  at  the individual level and make an empirical analysis of the values of the Post-1990s generation in northwest regions.

 

Objective and Significance of the Study 

 

The present study is dedicated to three objectives. The first two is to respectively find out  the  current  cultural  value  priorities  and  value  structure  for  the  contemporary  Chinese Post-90s  generation  (ages  between  17-26  years  old)  in  northwest  regions  (Shaanxi  and Gansu  Province)  under  the  context  of  globalization.  The  third  is  to  further  examine whether Schwartz’s values theory is suitable for measuring the values of the contemporary Chinese Post-90s generation and find out what factors may influence or restrict the values formation of the contemporary Chinese Post-90s generation in northwest regions.  This  study  is  of  significance  for  it  has  some  important  theoretical  and  practical implications.  Theoretically,  this  study  will  continue  the  academic  study  on  universal framework of basic human values and make its own contribution in China especially under the context of globalization. Some empirical evidences will be provided to further validate the structural equivalence to the theory-based ideal structure. Practically, it will lead to the better knowledge of the Post-90s generation in northwest regions. Specifically, people will have a better understanding of the value priorities and structures of the Post-90s generation in  northwest  regions  and  thus  promoting  the  mutual  understanding  between  the  Post-90s generation  and  cross-cultural  communication  with  other  groups  and  even  facilitating  the effective interpersonal communication to some extent.

 

Literature Review

 

Studies on Values

 

At  the  very  beginning,  Max  Weber,  a  German  sociologist  and  political  economist, regarded values as a central concept in social sciences, laying the foundation of the “core” status  of  values.  Later,  values  are  also  of great  significance  in  some  other  disciplines  like anthropology  and  intercultural  communication.  In  anthropologists’  opinion,  values  paved the  way  for  the  fundamental  assumptions  of  explaining  specific  behaviors  (Kluckhohn, 1951).  According  to  Rokeach,  a  Polish-American  social  psychologist,  the  significance  of values, “… [is] able to unify the apparently diverse interests of all the sciences concerned with human behavior” (Rokeach, 1973). From his perspective, values are standards which can  guide  behavior,  maintain  or  enhance  self-esteem.  Later,  Feather,  an  Australian psychologist,  echoed  Rokeach’s  viewpoint  and  further  emphasized  the  significance  of values  (Feather,  1988).  Besides,  values,  in  the  intercultural  study,  have  been  used  as  an especially  efficient  way  to capture  and  characterize  cultures.  According  to  Hofstede,  a Dutch  social  psychologist,  values  are  “mental  software”  which  helps  “program”  human behaviors  in  the  form  of  words  and  deeds  (Hofstede,  1991).  In  addition  to  the above-mentioned disciplines, values have also played an increasingly indispensable role in applies fields. To recap, it has been widely recognized that values, the fundamental concept in  various  disciplines,  constitute  the  “core”  of  cultures.  In  other  words,  values  are considered to be the most indispensable and central feature of culture. Therefore, they have been defined diversely over the years. Although the concept of value is debatable and has much inconsistency, several definitions are generally accepted and have been prevalent in values theory and research.

 

Studies on Schwartz’s Values Theory

 

Schwartz  (1992,  1994a/b,  2006;  Schwartz  &  Bardi,  2001;  Schwartz  &  Sagie,  2000), based  on  the  values  studies  of  his  predecessors,  conducted  a  series  of  large-scale  value survey  studies  and  presented  an  integrated  and  comprehensive  values  theory.  As  a consequence,  a  great  number  of  scholars  applied  his  value  theory  to  their  researches.  For example,  in  2009,  Aaron  Cohen  conducted  an  important  research  among  the  bank employees  in  Israel  by  using  the  Schwartz’s  (1992)  theory  to  examine  the  relationship between individual values. Later in 2008, Nina Koivula carried out his study in a Finnish steel company to not only examine the structure of the values postulated by Schwartz but also  examine  the  association  of  value  priorities  with  attitudes  towards  organizational change  and  knowledge  sharing.  In  2010,  Schwartz's  value  theory  was  applied  again  by Aaron Cohen to   examine the relationship between individual-level values, organizational and occupational commitment among Israeli Arabs. Besides that, recent years have seen a proliferation of studies that apply the Schwartz (1992) theory of basic human values using a variety of measurement scales. Studies have assessed the measurement properties of the scales,  factors  that  influence  people’s  values,  and  individual  differences  in  attitudes  and behavior traceable to the measured values.  Similarly,  in  recent  years,  an  increasing  attention  towards  Schwartz’s  values  theory has also been drawn in mainland China. For instance, in 2004, Ma Bohu and Hui Pingshan measured the value priorities and value orientations of 1000 University students from four universities  in Shaanxi  by  using  the  Schwartz  Value  Survey.  Two  years  later,  Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was applied by Kulich and his associates to collect data in 1995-1997, and 2003. It was a part of the research project under the Shanghai Chinese Values Project (SCVP)  and  had  great  significance.  Later  in  2008,  Schwartz  Value  Survey  was  used  by Zhang Yangfan to study the value priorities of Chinese students. Meanwhile, she compared her  research  result  with  the  data  from  the  previous  two  similar  studies  in  2003  and 1995-1997.

 

Research Results and Discussions

 

Concerning Values Priorities 

 

According  to  Schwartz,  what  affects  behavior  and  attitudes  is  the  tradeoff  among relevant  values,  not  the  importance  of  any  one  value. For  instance,  two  people  rate hedonism values 3 (somewhat like me). Despite this same rating, hedonism obviously has higher priority for a person who rates all other values higher (4-a little like me; 5-not like me;  6-not  like  me  at  all)  than  for  one  who  rates  all  other  values  lower  (2-like  me;  1-very much like me). Therefore, in order to measure value priorities accurately, the mean rating of each value item which represents the importance of each basic value to the respondents was calculated. From  Table  5.1,  it’s  easy  to  find  that  the  university  students’  responses  to  the  ten different value types were almost similar on the whole. The mean rating of each value type is relatively high: from 2.46 to 3.36. In other words, with respect to the value orientation of the university students, the distinction among the ten value types is quite small. Therefore, the  contemporary  university  students  show  a  diversified  value  type  in  some  degree. However, if viewed from the rank order of the ten value type, it also can be found that the most  important values  for  the  contemporary  Chinese  Post-90s  generation  in  northwest regions  (Shaanxi  and  Gansu  Province)  presented  by  the  data  were  Hedonism, Self-direction and Achievement while the least important were Stimulation, Tradition and Power.  What’s  more,  the  priorities  of  the  value  types  seem  to  show  that  the  openness  to change values tend to be more important than the conservation values.

 

Conclusion

 

Although certain deviations from the ideal structure were detected in the current study, this  study  testified  that  the  observed  structure  of  the  contemporary  Chinese  Post-90s generation  (ages  between  17-26  years  old)  in  northwest  regions  (Shaanxi  and  Gansu Province) fitted to the Schwartz’s individual-level values theory. That is to say, it has been verified  that  the  ten  value  types  formed  a  circular  structure.  Moreover,  in  this  circular structure,  the  conflict  and  congruity  relationships  among  values  have  also  been demonstrated.  As  a  whole,  the  contemporary  Chinese  Post-90s  generation  in  northwest  regions (Shaanxi  and  Gansu  Province)  values  Hedonism  and  Self-direction  most  while  values Power  least.  It  is  partly  because  with  the  rapid  development  of  science  and  economy,  the life standards of the northwest regions have also been dramatically improved. What’s more, since  most  of  the  Post-90s  generation  are  the  only  child  of  the  whole  family,  they  are protected  and  cherished  by  the  whole  family  and  thus  growing  up  with  relative  affluent materialist  conditions.  Therefore,  it  is  not  strange  that  the  Post-90s  generation  nowadays put  personal  pleasure  or  sensuous  gratification  on  top  priority.  However,  viewed  from another  angle,  the  preference  of  Self-direction  and  Achievement  to  Benevolence  and Conformity  probably  indicate  that  the  Post-90s  generation  is  more  self-centered  and motivated  by  the  desire  for  personal  success  rather  than  the  care  for  the  welfare  of  the human kind. Additionally, when taking the descriptive demographic statistics into account, it can be safely inferred that the degree to which Schwartz’s individual-level values theory applies varies according to the variables like gender and educational level.

 

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