Motivation is the force that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviours. It is what causes people to take action. The forces that lie beneath motivation can be biological, social, emotional or cognitive in nature."
In the modern business atmosphere competition is increasing day by day. And this competition is forcing the management to increase the productivity of the company. As a result, the management of the company is putting more pressure on the employees to increase the productivity. The consequences of these forces is making the employees less motivated and also leaving the job. Moreover, this complicated situation is increasing the employee turnover in the company .
To compete in this competitive business atmosphere it is very important for the management of the company to keep up the enthusiasm of the employees at a high standard. Moreover, to keep up this enthusiasm management of the company has to motivating the employees in different ways. There are numerous ways to motivating the employees in the business organisations. Motivation is the way to achieve the desire goal by increasing the productivity of the employees. It is the force that pushes someone to work hard .
A motivated employee works hard as they feel their need is fulfilled. In that need there are several issues such as; basic needs, security needs, group needs, self-esteem and self-fulfilment etc. Here below numerous motivational theories are given and will elaborate these theories for better understanding .
Maslow's Theory: Abraham Maslow suggested that everybody has some needs and these need goes to lower to higher in direction. If the lower needs are fulfilled then there will be another needs emerge to fulfilled. He also introduced a pyramid of needs which is given below Gronroos, 2009);
Figure: Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Frederick Winslow Taylor put forward the idea that workers are motivated mainly by pay. His Theory of Scientific Management argued the following:
Workers do not naturally enjoy work and so need close supervision and control.
Therefore managers should break down production into a series of small tasks.
Workers should then be given appropriate training and tools so they can work as efficiently as possible on one set task.
Workers are then paid according to the number of items they produce in a set period of time- piece-rate pay.
As a result workers are encouraged to work hard and maximise their productivity. (Leonard, Joseph and Valacich 2008)
Elton Mayo believed that workers are not just concerned with money but could be better motivated by having their social needs met whilst at work (something that Taylor ignored). He introduced the Human Relation School of thought, which focused on managers taking more of an interest in the workers, treating them as people who have worthwhile opinions and realising that workers enjoy interacting together.
Frederick Herzberg had close links with Maslow and believed in a two-factor theory of motivation. He argued that there were certain factors that a business could introduce that would directly motivate employees to work harder (Motivators). However there were also factors that would de-motivate an employee if not present but would not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder .
在工作场所的动力--Motivation in Workplace:
The average workplace is about midway between the extremes of high threat and high opportunity. Motivation by threat is a dead-end strategy, and naturally staff are more attracted to the opportunity side of the motivation curve than the threat side. Motivation is a powerful tool in the work environment that can lead to employees working at their most efficient levels of production.
InÂ Essentials of Organizational Behaviour, Robbins and Judge examine recognition programs as motivators, and identify five principles that contribute to the success of an employee incentive program.
Recognition of employees' individual differences, and clear identification of behaviour deemed worthy of recognition
Allowing employees to participate
Linking rewards to performance
Visibility of the recognition process
公司和选择的理由--The Company and Reason for Choice:
TescoÂ began in 1919 with one man, Jack Cohen, a market stallholder selling groceries in London. TESCO was formed out of a merger with T.E. Stockwell from whom he purchased tea for sale on the stall. The first store opened in 1929.
Since then, Tesco has expanded across the world. It now has over 2,200 stores including hypermarkets and Tesco Express outlets to meet different customer needs. As a conglomerate Tesco also offers alternative goods and services such as insurance, banking and online shopping. With net profits of around £3.4 billion Tesco has become the largest British retailer and one of the world's leading retail outlets on three continents. Tesco's growth has resulted in a worldwide workforce of over 468,000 employees.
To support its growth, Tesco needs staff that are motivated, flexible and well-trained and who recognise customer needs. In turn, Tesco's employees are supported by the company in their various roles and at different levels - from customer assistants in stores to department managers; from warehouse employees to office and logistics staff. Tesco recognises that employee motivation is important for the continued growth of the company.
动机是什么?--What is motivation?
Motivation may stem from personal interest such as keeping safe or from external factors such as praise and reward.
Different theories have been suggested for motivating employees. Pay is considered a primary motivator. Other motivating factors include:
appreciation of hard work
a sense of achievement
responsibility and empowerment
opportunity for advancement
a sense of challenge and enjoyment.
Benefits of Motivated Staff:
A motivated workforce will work harder and achieve greater output in less time, therefore reducing labour costs. It requires less supervision and demonstrates pride in its work, making a greater impact on the customer.
Motivated employees have greater concentration and are less likely to make mistakes, cause accidents or be involved in conflict. They are also likely to show greater loyalty to the company and have less absenteeism. An unmotivated workforce will be the opposite, being dissatisfied with its role in the work environment. This can negatively affect both the quality of the work as well as how efficiently employees carry out their jobs .
Tesco considers that the business depends on two groups of people customers and staff. It appreciates that staff are unique and have diverse lifestyles outside of work. To this end Tesco supports staff with a work/life balance and offers reward through:
free or reduced rate health benefits
discount gym membership
company share options.
Tesco has discovered that it is important to create trust and respect. It has found that by valuing employees, providing realistic goals and an interesting environment for them to work in, it increases employees" motivation.
At Tesco a motivated member of staff 'works in partnership with others to achieve individual and team objectives'. This means that he or she focuses on customers, treats people fairly and is determined and devoted to receiving feedback from others (Swanson and Richard 2008).
Motivational Theory Practice at Tesco:
Taylor's Motivational Theory - This approach of paying workers by results was good for the business. The outcome was greater production but gave little opportunity, encouragement or time for employees to think for themselves or be creative in what they did. This limited people's development and their use within the company.
Employee Reward - Tesco's Employee Reward Programme has some similarity to Taylor"s theory. Its financial reward packages are one motivating factor. However, there are factors other than money which motivate people in both their personal and working lives.Â Tesco goes far beyond Taylor and gives more than just simple pay increases. It supports the varied lifestyles of individual employees through relevant and targeted benefits (Zeithaml, Bitner and Gremler, 2006).
Many non-financial factors can and do motivate employees to improve their output. One such factor may be the desire to serve people; others may be to improve personal skills or achieve promotion. A person may be motivated to be a professional footballer not because of the salary but because they love football.
Employees are more motivated if they feel content in their work. This often happens when their employer creates a good working environment where employees feel valued, generally through increased communication and being asked for their opinions. Employee motivation is also likely to be higher if the organisation invests in its staff through training and development. In turn this enhances their knowledge, skills and their sense of job satisfaction (Swanson, Richard 2008).
Measuring Staff Satisfaction - Every year Tesco invites its staff to take part in a staff satisfaction survey called Viewpoint which gives them the opportunity to express their views on almost every aspect of their job. The results from the survey help Tesco make sure it is offering the right things to its staff to keep them motivated. Some of the benefits available to staff include:
Lifestyle break this offers 4-12 weeks off work and guarantees the job back at the end
Career break this allows staff between 6 months and 5 years away from work with right of return
Pension scheme this award-winning scheme provides clearly defined long term benefits.
The Mayo Effect - Internal or external factors may motivate a person to change or develop their actions. For example, an internal factor may be the desire to learn a new skill. This would reward the individual. External factors include, for example, sales targets and incentives. A more negative motivator might be no pay rise if targets are not achieved.
Communication - At Tesco the Mayo theory is seen to be operating throughout the company. Communication is an extremely important factor in motivating employees. This may be through 1-to-1 discussions with managers, through the company intranet or newsletters or through more formal structures such as appraisals.
Line managers hold a daily Team Meeting to update staff on what is happening for the day and to give out Value Awards. These awards can be given from any member of staff to another as a way of saying "thank you" and celebrating achievements.
Motivation from Training and Development - Tesco also promotes motivation through its many training and development opportunities. Everyone has access not just to the training they need to do their job well but also to leadership training to grow within the company.Â Tesco offers strategic career planning to help staffÂ 'achieve the extraordinary'.
In 2009 Tesco appointed 3,000 managers 80% internally. As well as an annual career discussion with every employee, the company also emphasises the development of the whole person and has implemented a system of 360 degree feedback. This is a personal development tool which provides feedback from a selection of people with whom the employee works. This helps employees to understand their behaviour, strengths and weaknesses within the workplace as others see them. The idea of the programme is to 'Take People with You' and 'To Gain the Hearts and Minds of Others' in order to improve individuals and get things done efficiently.
Personal Development Plans - All Tesco employees have a Personal Development Plan which they build through their 360 degree feedback and other tools. This enables Tesco managers to offer meaningful feedback to employees to help provide opportunities for continuous personal development. This personal approach helps employees to reach their full potential by encouraging self-assessment and providing advancement through ongoing training. It also enables individuals to take responsibility for their development.
Maslow's Theory - At the bottom of the pyramid are basic needs, those that motivate people to work food and shelter. Once these needs are met through pay, individuals want safety and security through, for example, good job conditions. Social needs refer to the need to belong, to be part of a group. Self-esteem may arise from a promotion. Right at the top is Self fulfilment - the area for creativity, challenge and interest. Maslow suggested that achieving one level motivates us to achieve the next (Kelly 2006).
Herzberg's Theory - Tesco aims to motivate its employees both by paying attention to hygiene factors and by enabling satisfiers. For example, it motivates and empowers its employees by appropriate and timely communication, by delegating responsibility and involving staff in decision making. It holds forums every year in which staff can be part of the discussions on pay rises. This shows recognition of the work Tesco people do and rewards them.
招募和选拔 --RECRUITMENT & SELECTION
The wrong person in the wrong job is no good to either the individual or the organisation. A key ingredient to employee retention is to "employ the right person in the first place". (Berry and Parasuraman, 2001)
Looking at a CV for evidence of the relevant skill set and previous experience is important but in business today, this is not enough.
What one can't tell for sure, even from the interview, is whether the applicant definitely has the temperament, attitude and motivation to be successful.
So choosing the wrong person.....again, only to see them leave and need replacing, is expensive, not to mention time consuming and potentially damaging to the business whilst operating without that key person in post and contributing. (Coy, Wolfgang 2004)
Understanding the individual's set of unique motivational drivers is absolutely essential to the modern day recruitment process and will dramatically improve any HR team or interview panel's ability to select the right person for the job. In the past, a person's true motivational drivers have been difficult to identify let alone measure.
Identifying the perfect Square Peg for a perfect Square Hole in the workplace - the right person for the job has phenomenal benefits for both the success of the business and all the people involved. The business gains a focussed, committed, successful, productive and highly motivated new member of staff and the successful candidate experiences improved health, fulfilment and happiness from their work.
Employee motivation is an important task for managers. Early motivational theory such as that of Taylor suggested that pay motivated workers to improve production.
However businesses now need employees to have greater motivation and have a stake in the company for which they work, as shown by Mayo. Maslow and Herzberg demonstrated that employees are motivated by many different factors.
Tesco provides opportunities for its managers and staff to take a share and a greater interest in their own employment. Since every employee is an individual, with different needs and aspirations, the process of reviews and personal development plans allows recognition of their abilities and achievement, as well as potential development.
This benefits the individual by providing career progression. It also benefits Tesco by ensuring the business can deliver high levels of customer service through its skilled employees.
想要了解更多留学作业代写或者需要留学文书辅导，请关注51Due英国论文代写平台，51Due是一家专业的论文代写机构，专业辅导海外留学生的英文论文写作，主要业务有英文report 代写 、argument essay代写、paper代写、assignment代写。在这里，51Due致力于为留学生朋友提供高效优质的留学教育辅导服务，为广大留学生提升写作水平，帮助他们达成学业目标。如果您有毕业论文代写需求，可以咨询我们的客服QQ：800020041。