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地中海地区再利用资源可行性report范文

2017-05-23 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Report代写范文

以下是一篇关于为地中海地区提供淡水的再利用和海水淡化的可行性分析report范文,本文由51due英国论文代写网精选。文章主要讲述了地中海国家,如埃及,摩洛哥和巴勒斯坦,遭受水资源短缺和污染,导致严重的淡水供应问题。不仅地中海地区而且全球都面临着这个挑战。无数人无法确保水卫生,数百万人死于污水传播的疾病。利用先进的供水技术,对地中海地区至关重要。地中海地区有几种脱盐,再利用,稳定池塘,建造湿地和砂滤系统的方法。然而,他们中的大多数在地中海地区有局限性。本报告重点介绍了淡水脱盐与废水再利用的可行性比较。

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Introduction

The Mediterranean countries, like Egypt, Morocco, and Palestine, suffer water shortage and contamination, leading to a serious problem of sufficient fresh water supply. Not only the Mediterranean regions but the whole world is confronting this challenge. Countless people can not ensure the water sanitation and millions of them die of diseases transmitted by polluted water Taking advantage of advanced water supply techniques is of great importance to the Mediterranean area. There are several methods involving desalination, reuse, stabilization ponds, constructed wetlands and sand filter system in Mediterranean region. However, most of them have limitations in the Mediterranean areas. This report focuses on the comparison of feasibility between desalination and reuse of waste water.

1 Background

The Mediterranean region has severe water supply problem, considering its arid climate, desertification and government failure. Recently, the rapidly development of middle east facilitates the economy and population, leading to a reduction of water usage per person. Apart from that, water contamination threaten the nations and people in this region live a chaotic and conflict life. All of these result in a unstable situation in water supply.


 Sixto et al.(2011) indicated that about 280km3 water was used in 1990 and the number was doubled in twentieth century in the Mediterranean region, and plus with the economical development of these countries, in 2025, water shortage will become much more severe. Apart from the daily life consumption of water, thousands of industries can not survive without water supply, such as materials processing, energy production and environment protection. Therefore, water treatment techniques have to be low-cost and energy-efficient. Traditional methods like reservoir or underground-water collection are unsafe and do harm to the natural geographic structure, let alone the arid situation in Mediterranean region. Considering the vast amount of sea water in this region, desalination is a fitly way to offer sustainable water sully as well as the reuse of waste water, which is essential for the developing countries.


In the Mediterranean region, traditional water supply ways have their limits. The stabilization pond needs large place to be built, and constructed wetland needs a huge amount of resources; sheaffer modular reclamation system can can ensure 100% recovery of nutrient wealthy water for irrigation but have a problem of eutrophia in water; sand filter system is the most traditional wastewater treatment techniques and almost out of use(Choukr-Allah, 2011 ). However, the desalination is highly development nowadays, using reverse osmosis techniques to turn seawater into fresh water. In terms of the environment-friendly, waste water reuse is considered to be the trend of modern water treatment.


2 assessment of feasibility comparison

a)Desalination

Reverse osmosis is the main method to desalinate seawater. It is cost-effective and low energy use due to the simple operation that just introducing specific pressure can fulfill filtration. Another advantage of desalination is that prepared fresh water can be considerable clean. The reason is that seawater, unlike other industrial or domestic effluent, mostly contains the inorganic salt, visible particles and microbes, which can be filtered and disinfected. But at the same time, because reverse osmosis always depends on membrane filtration and the membrane porosity is in nanometer scope, the water treating progress is very slow(Mark, 2008). What’s worse, if the pressure is increased in order to accelerate the filtration and rise the water flux, the energy consumption will be multiplied and the membranes might be broken.


Even the expense of desalination is relatively small than other methods, the political situation of Mediterranean areas should be taken into consideration. AbouRayan, M. (2011) concluded that Egypt, whose water supply depends on the Nile river, is supposed to utilize low-cost desalination as its supplemental supply. However, because of the political chaos and conflicts, the government can not afford the payment to construct enough desalination facilities.


b) Reuse of water

Water recycling, like the desalination, also uses membrane to filter polluted water. Unlike desalination, the water reuse technique has a wider range of application, and its output of fresh water is more than the former because the membranes used in water recycling are much advanced than reverse osmosis membrane. So this method relies on technology development. Besides, the main problem of water recycling is that the membrane is usually fouled by particles or chemicals and hard to be cleaned, leading to its short lifespan(Mark, 2008). One of the solution is to have a pretreatment before filtration, but this purification requires more energy and human resource, which is a complicated progress. In addition, in Mediterranean region, water supply has to satisfy the irrigation demands, resulting in a selectivity during the water recycling instead of filtering every element.


Compared to the desalination, water reuse in the Mediterranean region is a preferable choice. The reason is that this area is facing serious arid climate than ever before, and the fresh water should be recovered and recycling instead of being discovered, which would waste precious human resources and even the potential cost like the transportation and reservation, especially for the cities that are far away from the Mediterranean sea. For instance, Loutfy, N. M. (2011) concluded that Egypt sat the wastewater reuse as central mechanism and more than 200 wastewater treatment plants have been constructed. 


3 Recommendation and conclusion

The Mediterranean region is one of the most arid areas in the world, and economical development as well as increasing population worsen the water shortage situation, let alone the unstable international relationship. Therefore, countries in this region should consider the expense and efficiency of water supply techniques. Desalination is more suitable for the countries closed to Mediterranean sea but the most sustainable way is to develop wastewater reuse system. Even though the sea account for more than 70% of the surface on earth, the available water is limited and the most important thing is that the Mediterranean sea is narrowing. 


Water reuse can be used in various industrial fields and have a bright prospect. In the following years, more low-cost and simple-constructed equipment should be made directly on the land of Mediterranean and countries should have more interaction of technique support. In addition, water treatment should not only be based on one progress and multiple methods should be put into effect, like pretreatment, disinfection, desalination and recycling.


Reference

Shannon, M. A., Bohn, P. W., Elimelech M., Georgiadis, J. G., Marinas, B. J.& Mayes, A. M.(2008). Science and technology for water purification in the coming decades. Nature, 452, 301-310.

Choukr-Allah, R. (2011). Innovative Wastewater treatments and reusetechnologies adapted to southern Mediterranean countries. In: Barcelo, D. & Petrovic, M.eds. Vol. 14. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Springer Netherlands, 2011, 30-62.

Malato, S., Oller, I., Fernandez-Ibanez, P., & Fuerhacker, M. (2011). Technologies for advanced wastewater treatment in the Mediterranean region. In: Barcelo, D. & Petrovic, M.eds. Vol. 14. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Springer Netherlands, 2011, 1-29 

AbouRayan, M. (2011). Desalination Technologies as a Response to Water Strategy Problems (Case Study in Egypt). Water Security in the Mediterranean Region. In:Scozzari, A. & El Mansouri, B. eds. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security. Springer Netherlands, 2011,339-352.

Loutfy, N. M. (2011). Reuse of Wastewater in Mediterranean Region, Egyptian Experience. In: Barcelo, D. & Petrovic, M.eds. Vol. 14. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Springer Netherlands, 2011, 182-213.


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