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Paper代写:Habermas's theory of "inner Transcendence"

2017-12-18 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文-Habermas's theory of "inner Transcendence",供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了哈贝马斯的“内在超越”理论。哈贝马斯“内在超越”理论对复杂多变的当前国际社会,尤其是对宗教和宗教信仰,以及宗教之间的交流,有着极大的启示作用。哈贝马斯“内在超越”理论的核心路线表明了其宗教观就是理性主义路线,同时也说明了他不是要颠覆传统理性主义,而是要重塑理性主义对哲学、宗教等的重要意义。

Habermas,哈贝马斯,英国论文代写,paper代写,论文代写

The core line of Habermas's theory of "inner Transcendence" shows that his religious view is the rational route, and it also shows that he is not to subvert the traditional rationalism, but to reshape the significance of rationalism to philosophy and religion. Habermas's theory of "inner Transcendence" has a great revelation to the complex and changeable international society, especially to religious and religious beliefs, as well as to religious exchanges.

Habermas, the second generation main representative of the Frankfurt School, has made remarkable achievements in every subject, but from the religious point of view, the existing clear discussion has puzzled the later researchers. However, it is very puzzling that Habermas's writings have given great inspiration and influence to religion. Based on the present research achievements of Habermas, the author analyzes the core thought-"inner transcendence", displays his religious thoughts and explores whether Habermas's religious thought line is a kind of rationalism route, combining Habermas's "communicative rationality".

Transcendence is one of the characteristics of human beings, is the most important characteristics, but also other animals can not match. The Bible tells us that Adam and Eve did not eat the fruit of the tree of good and evil in order to fill their stomachs, but to "transcend", to transcend their present state, and to be as omnipotent as God. Therefore, the history of mankind is a "transcendence" of history, in the "beyond" constantly change self-improvement self. Therefore, "people not only have the ability to grasp the ' presence ' real life, but also may respond to the ' not yet present ' future life. "It is the character of man, that is, to break the stipulation of real life, to make the pursuit of transcending reality, and thus to follow the dream of realizing the ability of God".

The term "Transcendence" is widely used, philosophy, religion, and other disciplines, which exist universally and inevitably in human culture. "Transcendence" means the meaning of "surpassing, ascending"--from reality, secular, phenomenon, spanning, ascending to ideal, free, beautiful, mysterious, salvation, eternal realm. In Western culture, "Transcendence" originated in the Middle Ages, from the etymology of Latin transcandere, when used as verbs, there are "cross", "Skip", "Cross" and other righteousness, when used as adjectives, there is "lofty", "broad-minded" meaning, It refers to some kind of state which is related to the individual's subjective learning attainment. "Transcendence", when it comes to the characterization of man, refers to the manifestation of the realm-the transcendence of Man, the promotion of a person's desire or attainment of a purely individual's subjective value. Real life in the "level", "grade" is not the same, refers to the meaning of the layer, that is, the so-called "realm" is not the same.

In both East and West thought, "Transcendence" has been analyzed and discussed. In Western thought, "Transcendence" is translated into "transcendental" in Philosophy, "transcendental", religion translated as "transcendental", "Now" and so on; obviously, "transcendental" as a verb, has already presupposed the essential key element that transcends the activity, namely the subject, object and scope of the activity, and the object and mode of the activity. These four elements complete the activity as the whole of "transcendence" activities, otherwise, it does not make any sense, let alone achieve or become a certain realm.

In modern Chinese thought, the definition of transcendence is quoted more MOU, "Heaven is above the meaning of transcendence." When the heaven is absorbed in the person, and within the human nature, then the Tao is intrinsic. Therefore, we can use the word Kant, saying that the Tao of Heaven is beyond, on the other hand, the inner. Heaven transcends and inside, at this time can be described as both religious and moral meaning, religion more than righteousness, and moral weight inherent righteousness.

Comparing the Chinese and Western studies, "Transcendence" has the ontological and metaphysical color of realism in its original meaning. The specific use of "transcendence" involves not only the four key elements mentioned above, but also the two other aspects that we must take note of. On the one hand, transcendental boundaries exist. What people seek and yearn for can be said to be a brand new thing, that is, the new "realm" and so on. Therefore, there must be a boundary between man and transcendence, or if one wants to reach a new realm, it is necessary to leap from the old realm and enter the other world which is entirely outside of himself, and there must be a "boundary" between the old and the new. The existence of this "boundary" makes the transcendence and theism have certain connection, namely the meaning of divine study.

On the other hand, according to the four elements of "transcendence" or the intention of "surpassing", in the cultural history tradition and the real life, we must acknowledge that the transcendence is the human transcendence, also can only be the human transcendence, at the same time, the link between the human and the transcendental boundary is not rationalism, but also is not the faith can complete. The value and practical meaning of life can be accomplished by reason, that is, people use reason to reach a new boundary.

In addition, the way of transcendence manifests itself as "inner transcendence" and "external Transcendence". The transcendere intention of Western culture refers to "outward", and immanere is opposite, therefore, there is no "external transcendence" in Western culture, and its "inner transcendence" is related to the different stages and different factions of Western philosophy history. Therefore, in Western philosophy, the problem of "transcendence" and "external" is only expressed as the relationship between Transcendence and immanence. Compared with "inner transcendence", there is the word "outward transcendence". In the Western culture thought, mainly refers to the Christianity to draw off the world God. "Inner Transcendence" in Chinese traditional culture thought was sageliness by Confucianism.

The emphasis of China and the West on Transcendence and the interpretation of transcendence in China and the West fully illustrate the important value and significance of transcendence over human beings. In other words, transcendence is one of the original characteristics of people, with the understanding of transcendence, it is not difficult to understand the meaning of people, as well as the value of life and the pursuit of goals. This is one of the purposes pursued by philosophy and religion. Throughout Habermas's philosophy, the key is "transcendence". The communicative behavior theory proposed by Habermas discusses the communicative rationality, that is, the rationality or rationalization of communication; Moreover, his other concept: "internal transcendence, transcendence in this world", actually refers to the internal transcendence usually referred to. "Inner Transcendence" is a question of rationality, and Habermas's communication rationality and rationalization problem is the problem of communicative rationality, that is, the problem of rationality. Here, "inner transcendence" has obvious religious overtones. This needs us to Habermas's religious view core-rational "intrinsic transcendence", namely the communication rationality or rationalization analysis, at the same time, we may also consider the religious belief surmounting, the intrinsic surmounting question, namely regarding the God question. Therefore, we can ask: how many people as the "inner transcendence" of the feasibility of the subject? Does the limited "intrinsic" potential actually "transcend" the finite and reach infinity in reality? "Communication rationality" and "inner Transcendence"

Habermas thinks that the traditional epistemology which begins from Kant is the result that the acquisition of the truth has been turned into a consensus through negotiation between subject and object, and the so-called "Copernican revolution" is to make the cognition conform to the object; On the basis of criticizing Kant's own monsters, Hegel believed that the subject and the object had the dynamic cognition convergence, thus reached the agreement. The critical theory proposed by Habermas is that truth exists in the communication between subjects, that is, the relationship between subject and object. Therefore, it is not only to establish the synergy between the subject and the object, but also to establish the discourse relationship. This puts the question of truth into the body of human being, and puts the truth into the rationality of the subject, and it is a kind of subject and subject, which is manifested in the interaction between people, or the interaction between groups and groups. As a result, rationality has become the most important, both individually and collectively.

The communicative behavior defined by Habermas: "From the perspective of mutual understanding, communicative behavior is the dissemination and renewal of cultural knowledge; From the perspective of coordinated action, the communicative behavior plays a role of social integration and creation of solidarity and mutual assistance; Finally, from the perspective of socialization, the communicative behavior is to create the unique characteristics and essence of the individual. "It can be seen that Habermas believes that culture is human culture, while people create their own culture, they also make individuals." Thus, the analysis of history and tradition can not be separated from the "creation" activities, this "creation" is actually a person's communication activities or communicative behavior. Therefore, compared to real life problems, such as political, legal, moral, fairness, justice and other major social problems, can not be separated from the concept of communication behavior. Communication refers not only to the interaction between individuals and individuals, but also to the behavior of society as a whole, and it does not start with the individual subject consciousness of self-reflection, but from the speech and communicative behavior based on the relationship of subject and object which is composed of a speaker and at least one listener.

The subject communication that Habermas emphasizes is not a single pair of communicative activities, and its object is not something other than human beings. This kind of intercourse behavior contains triple relation: first, understanding the relationship between subject and event and fact world, second, in a behavioral society world, in the interaction of the relationship between the practice subject and other subjects, third, a mature and painful subject and its own intrinsic nature, its own subjectivity. This is the three major knowledge expressed in traditional philosophy, that is, theoretical knowledge, practical knowledge and aesthetic knowledge.

According to the concept and characteristics of Habermas' communicative behavior, he believes that the motives and purposes of human communication are for the survival of the ego and for the better survival of the self. Of course, human beings have to obtain better living conditions, only to carry out more interaction activities, and to make interaction between the acts of fairness, justice and reasonable. However, in the established conditions of social life, human communication behavior is often disrupted, or even distorted, extremely unreasonable. To change that irrationality, he felt that only the appropriate language should be chosen for dialogue, recognition and respect for the norms and standards reached among each other. As a common norm and basis, all subjects must act as the final criterion of coordinated behavior. Of course, the criteria described here are achieved by a unified understanding of people. Therefore, to change the unreasonable behavior of communication, only dialogue. Moreover, the dialogue should be aimed at mutual understanding and understanding, and not for the purpose of satisfying or achieving unilateral requirements; otherwise, honest dialogue is impossible, coordination will eventually fail, and the harmonious relationship will not exist.

This shows that Habermas's transfer of reason is no longer to understand rationality merely as a kind of ability--the ability of the subject with self-consciousness, but as a kind of ability to use language to communicate. Thus, it leads to the definition or definition of the rationality and rationalization of the communicative behavior, that is, the definition of the communicative rationality.

Habermas believes that, first of all, the concept of communicative rationality, in the elaboration of it, although full of doubts, however, the concept of communicative rationality has sealed the short-sighted of cognitive instrumental rationality, followed by the two-level social concept, which links the two Paradigms of life world and system with a method that is not rhetorical; Finally, the Theory of Modernity, This paper explains the current social pathological types, and thinks that modern disease lies in the life field with communicative structure, which can be manipulated by independent system with formal structure. Therefore, the communicative behavior theory should be as far as possible to outline the modern paradox of social life relations.

Habermas's communicative behavior is among the main subjects. The main body here is people-oriented, that is, the subject refers to people, object is also refers to people. But, the intercourse behavior between the main body, namely the person and person's intercourse behavior, the subject and the object's intercourse behavior is the intercourse as the center. Therefore, "communicative rationality" allows rationality to be changed from "centering on subject", that is, centering on subjects and objects, to the rationality of "centering on Intersubjectivity". Communicative rationality mainly lies in establishing the communicative behavior between subjects, instead of the paradigm of instrumental behavior. Communicative behavior is a kind of interactive activity between subjects, i.e. the subject and the object take the language symbol as the medium. Therefore, the rationality of communication can make "rational structure not only in the expansion of purposeful rational behavior, that is to show the expansion of technology, strategy, organization and qualified means, but also in the media of communicative behavior, embodied in the mechanism of conflict adjustment, world Outlook and the formation of identity. ”

The activity of intercourse or intercourse becomes the center, it is advantageous to resist the arbitrary "instrumental behavior" dominating rationality, as far as possible through the discourse "communication activities" in-depth rationality, reach agreement, and finally complete rational communication. This is just as Habermas's other point of view, rational rationalization is the result of rational communication. In this way, the communication must be public or can be observed and validated, it could not happen within a subject or object, without being known by outsiders. Therefore, the communicative reason is not transcendental, but experience. But from another point of view, the communication action is to achieve some kind of "transcendence", constantly to the unknown "beyond the boundary" to break through, in order to achieve a new situation or state. This shows that the direction of communication is always not controlled by the main body, the subject has been in the prediction of the unknown, to break through and beyond.

In order to highlight the differences with the traditional view of rationality, Habermas, in addition to special circumstances, generally no longer use reason, but with rationality, rationalization or rational to replace. The communicative behavior is the center of the interaction between people, and under the guidance of the norms and standards of common recognition and observance, we should choose the appropriate language, respect and understand each other so as to rationalize the communication and achieve the rationality of rational communication. Therefore, Habermas's communicative rationality is purely linguistic, and not only criticizes and discards the traditional rational view, but also overcomes the narrow view that only rational understanding of rationality as the means of acquiring the function of truth and achieving the goal. In addition, Habermas's communicative rationality is analyzed in the relationship between the subjects, i.e. interpersonal relationships, which makes the rationality become the synthesis of the relationship of communication activities. Therefore, Habermas's attitude towards rationality is not to completely negate rationality, to abandon rationality, but to defend rationality, to support rationality, to transfer rationality, but to discard the traditional reason, and to make a new interpretation of rationality while adhering to the essence of rationality.

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