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Paper代写:How Does Parental Divorce Influence Children in China

2018-02-07 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇paper代写- How Does Parental Divorce Influence Children in China讨论了父母离异对中国儿童的影响。有数据显示,中国的离婚率在过去几十年里一直在快速增长。离婚对于儿童来说是一个严重的问题,可能会导致儿童缺乏管教和家庭温暖,其次沉重的心理打击,易导致其性格缺陷,使孩子的人际交往能力减弱,自卑感更强,比较敏感、早熟等等一系列问题也会出现。本篇paper代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

Parental Divorce,父母离异,paper代写,代写,essay代写

Statistic shows that the divorce rate in China has been growing rapidly in the past decades (Statista, 2017). There has also been evidence showing that parent-child relationship varies across cultures (Bilge & Kaufman, 1983). Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a research about how children in China are affected by parental divorce. This paper aims to develop a literature review about the research question: how does parental divorce influence children in China? There has been various existing research that investigates the general influences of parental divorce on children. Meanwhile, there are also limited studies that focus on the specific case in China. To achieve a basic understanding of current research status of this research topic, eight academic articles will be reviewed and synthesised as follows.

The first study included in this paper was conducted by Amato and Keith (1991). The adopted method in the research was meta-analysis which involved 92 existing studies. This research provided a framework to investigate how children are influenced by parental divorce, and according to Amato and Keith (1991), the influences of parental divorce on children mainly included three aspects: parental absence aspect, economic disadvantage aspect and family conflict aspect. Under the influences of parental divorce, children might differ from those in intact families in the following dimensions: education attainment, behavior, parent-child relations, adjustment and self-concept, etc. Apart from generating a framework for latter research, this paper also provided some useful implications about research methods. Initially, studies conducted at different times generated different results. Earlier studies tended to believe much stronger effects of the divorce on children than the recent ones. In addition, studies with different sample sizes also generated different research results. To be more specific, social adjustment and father-child relations were significantly related to the sample size of studies.

The research of Amato and Keith (1991) provided a basic understanding of the impacts of parental divorce on children. More importantly, it compared and synthesised different studies on this topic, and outlined the relationship between research results and research methods. Nevertheless, it had the limitations that the study was conducted a long time ago, so the research results might be outdated.

A more recent study conducted by Amato (2000) addressed various key issues about parental divorce’s impacts on children. Such issues included whether divorce caused a temporary turmoil or a lifelong impact on children, and the factors that mediate the effects of divorce. Research results were based on the comparison and analysis of the existing studies, showing that the effects of divorce on children varied greatly among children, andit was vital for social workers and researchers to notice such contingencies. The weakness of this study was that its conclusions was somewhat too general and the research lacked appropriate primary data to support its conclusions.

The studies of Amato and Keith (1991) and Amato (2000) both provided an overview over how children were affected by divorce. There were also many studies that focused on a specific area of parental divorce’s impacts on children. The research of Amato and Cheadle (2008) focused on the behavior problems of children caused by parental divorce. Through the comparisons between the biological and adopted children, this research showed that the behavior problems of children were mainly due to the family environment instead of genetic connections between parents and children. This research provided a fresh perspective to investigate how children were affected by parental divorce, and further supported the argument that family environment was the major factor having influences on children. Meanwhile, this research also had the limitations that it failed to take the different divorce rates between adopted families and biological families into consideration. It is showed that the divorce rates of biological families were much higher than that of adopted families, which might lead to a biased research result.

Another study that focused on a specific area of parental divorce’s impacts on children was conducted by Keith and Finlay (1988) who focused on education and marriage of children. Research results showed that children in divorced families were likely to achieve lower education attainment and to get married at an earlier age. Additionally, daughters in divorced families were more likely to get divorced, while the divorced rates of sons were related to their social classes. This study was based on data of National Opinion Research Corporation's General Social Surveys, and consider about the different genders of the children. However, it failed to analysethe differences between the children that experienced an early parental divorce and those that experienced the delayed.

Moreover, the study of the adverse Furstenberg and Kiernan (2001) provided an innovative perspective to study the research topic by comparing early ce and delayed parental divorce. A longitudinal study was conducted among 17,414 children born in the same week in UK. The children were followed up, traced, and interviewed in their adulthood. Children that experienced parental divorce were divided into two groups: early parental divorce and delayed parental divorce. Research result showed that the delayed divorce exerted less adverse influences on children than early divorce. This study had the strengths of a large sample size, large time span, and the innovative research perspective. By selecting children that were born in the same week also determined that the research sample had the similar social context. This research indicated that the general conclusions should be avoided about how children were affected by parental divorce. Nonetheless it failed to take children in intact families into comparison.

The above studies were all conducted in western cultures like the UK and US, and it is reasonable to believe that their research results might not be applicable in the case of China. It was until recently that social researchers began to pay attention to how children were affected by parental divorce, and the number of studies that examined the case in China was limited The articles were reviewed and synthesised as follows. The first research was conducted by Dong, Wang and Ollendick (2002). 174 children from divorced families and 174 children from complete families were involved in the study, and the quantitative measures were adopted to evaluate the impacts of parental divorce on children. Indicators used in this study included Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Research results showed that children from divorced families experienced a higher level of depression and anxiety than those from complete families. This research adopted a quantitative research method with a medium size of sample . The limitation of this study was that it failed to take the ages of children into consideration.

The study of Dong, Wang and Ollendick (2002) focused on the psychological impacts on children, while that of Liu et al. (2000) researched the behavioral effects on children. Quantitative measures were adopted in this study as well, and indexes about children behavior like Child Behavior Checklist were involved. A total number of 58 children from divorced families and 4804 children from complete families were researched and the results showed that children in divorced families rated significantly higher in aggressive behavior, withdrawal and social problems than those children in intact families. This research had the weakness of a relatively small sample size of children from divorced families and the unequal sample sizes of control group and experiment group, which may have an influence on the research results.

Another study focused on China was conducted by Cheung and Liu (1997). Different from the previous studies that investigated children, this research conducted surveys by analysisng301 single parents. There sults showed that children in divorced families exhibited serious behavior problems and anxiety. Based on the findings, the paper also provided some useful suggestions for parents to minimise the possible negative impacts on children, including the parents’ acceptance and social supports.

In summary, eight academic articles have been reviewed and synthesised above. Two of them were theoretical studies that provided a general overview over how children were affected by parental divorce, and the other six adopted quantitative or qualitative methods to investigate a certain area about the research topic. Also, among the latter six studies, three of them were conducted in western cultures, while the another three focused on China issues. These eight studies not only help to achieve a deeper understanding of the parental divorce’s impacts on children, but also provide useful implications about the research methods. Based on the literature review, some useful implications could be generated for later research. Firstly, general conclusions about research topic should be avoided for further applications, and variables like the age and gender of children should be taken into consideration to improve the accuracy of the research results. Also, more participants should be involved to make research results more valid and convincible. Lastly, the major difference about parental divorce’s effects on children between China and western society is that the divorce rate in China is relatively lower than that in western countries. This difference creates difficulty for sampling of children in divorced families.

2. Research Question:

Under the dual influences of population and social changes, economic situation, occupations, and people's ideas, such as marriage, family view, sexual concept, mate selection, and ethics, have undergone rapid changes. On the one hand, with the increasingly diversified social development in China, family status is constantly changing. Therefore, in China, the wave of divorce strongly influences every family, based on the fact that the divorce rate keeps following an obvious upward trend, and results in an increased number of the divorced family children. This may lead to more children related problems that can further influence the development of the whole country, and as a result,  it is reasonable to believe that such an increasing number of divorced families has become one of the most important social problems. On the other hand, due to the traditional Chinese culture, it is a common phenomenon for the grandparents to live with their children and look after their grandchildren. In this whole background of the increasing divorcing rate, the grandparents are without doubt playing an increasingly important role in Chinese single parenting children’s lives.

Therefore, the answers to the following questions are rather important: what is the mental health conditions of children from single-parent families? Does living with grandparents directly influence single-parent children? Does the divorce have the same effects on children when they have or do not have their?

This study largely accomplished some knowledge gaps in this area.

3. Methodology:

The purpose of this section is to present a general statistical methodology for repeated measurement experiments (or surveys) which involve multivariate categorical data.

In this research plan, Sampling, comparison, and evaluation are used as methods.

According to the research texts, methodologies are listed as followed.

Analysis: classes of data were collected and studies were conducted to discern patterns and formulate principles that might guide future actions.

Comparison: two or more existing situations were studied to determine their similarities and differences.

Evaluation: research were conducted to determine whether a program or project followed the prescribed procedures and achieved the stated outcomes.

Survey-questionnaire: behaviors, beliefs and observations of specific groups were identified, reported and interpreted.

Experiment: one or more variables were manipulated and the results were analyzed.

In another classification, methodology can be also categorized into qualitative data collection and quantitative data collection. The methodology in this research plan uses the later category, by collecting data and building model.

4. Methods:

4.1. Sampling

The choice of the object of this study selected 12 schools in Shenyang City, of which four were primary schools (only the fourth, fifth, sixth grade), five were  junior high schools, and three were  senior high schools. A total of 2199 copies of the questionnaire were sent out, including 635 to primary schools, 1062 to junior high schools, and 502 to senior high schools. All the measured tables are received. After validity analysis, the number of invalid questionnaires was detected to calculate the effective rate.

Strictly considering about the sample selected in this study, although not on behalf of the city all divorced children, the general analysis can reflect the mental health of the object.

4.2. Data Analysis

The study took the ‘mental health diagnosis test’ as a measurement tool. The scale, which was also known as the Anxiety Test, was applied to the students of the fourth year in high school. The scale had a total number of 100 topics, including 8 content scales,(1) study anxiety(A), (2) fear to people(B), (3) lonely tendency(C), (4) self-blame tendency (D), (5) allergy tendency (E), (6) physical symptoms (F), (7) terror tendency (G), (8) Impulse tendency (H),and a validity scale (i.e., polygraph scale). The scores of each subscale can be converted to standard points, and the standard scores of the eight content scales can be regarded as those of the total anxiety tendency of the full scale. The test can reflect the general level of individual mental health through not only the total score of the content scale, understand the general tendency of each person's anxiety, including the breadth of anxiety and the degree of anxiety, but also the results of a content scale, a certain aspect of psychological problem tendencies and severity.  The test can help to diagnose the primary and secondary school students’ emotional distress and maladaptation, so that teachers and parents to can understand and guide the children in a right way. Validity and reliability coefficient is higher.

Each factor was divided into eight sub-critical points (less than 8 points for normal anxiety, equal to or greater than 8 for abnormal anxiety), and the total score of anxiety was 65 points.

In this study, from the divorced and finished families tested, the cases with a total score of anxiety equal to or greater than 65 points were filtered out and recorded in the following table.

However, even though the causes of the disorder can result in more explanation, it is difficult to confirm the divorced family and that the exception is caused by divorce. To this end, the special design of the interview outline which including the divorced family, teachers, family interviews, progress dissociation of different family health situations or development levels, deep excavation of its production reasons, can provide the basis for the analysis.

The progress of the test on the table was confirmed and so did the reasons for the objective explanation of the health status.

4.3.1. Tests

Sampling was finished through random selection of the schools to be measured and let the school to measure the class, in the same time, to the level of units for measurement. When the test was finished, it was required to tick out the efficiency of the questionnaire, and then divorced from the divorced family asked volume.

4.3.2. nterviews

The study was conducted in a way that the researchers were in charge of 10 cases each, combined with the interview outline with the school and its exchange, and with the class teachers, home exchanges, and deep dissociation of the health status. Records needed to make during the whole process.

5. Ethical Considerations:

The content of this article is absolutely in line with the requirements of laws and regulations, and is definitely written without any violation of laws and regulations. This article strictly compliance with intellectual property rights to comply with ethics. Design and experimental process have strictly considered the private safety and health issues, whether it is experimental environment or questionnaire. This subject does not involve non-technical factors such as ethics.

6. Strengths and limitations of the research design

This research plan includes variables such as, age and gender, to compare the mental health status of children from divorced families and those from intact families. Particularly, this research plan focuses on the role that grandparents play.

This research plan studies the impact of single-parent families on mental health of children in different age bands in China. As mentioned in the Literature Review, the papers on mental health development of children from divorced families in China are quite rare. This study helps to understand not only the effects of single-parent families on mental health development of children with statistical data, but also the conditions in the Chinese context.

This research plan focuses on the outcome children’s mental health development in single-parent families about those who live with grandparents in China. Recent papers proved that the grandparents’ role was even more important in single-parent families. Feng (2002) suggests that about 70% of the single-parent children in China are not raised by their parent directly. However, in both Western and Chinese cultures, raised by grandparents is thought to be not enough for a child’s growth and can even cause some problems in children’s mental health development.

Therefore, this research plan is important for its filling in some gaps in this field.

Different from all the other studies, this research plan intends to conclude the factor of being raised by grandparents in the cases of single-parent family situations. It will fulfill the area of understanding the mental health development of children in single-parent families in China.

References:

D’Cruz, H., &Gillingham, P. (2014). Improving child protection services: Australian parents’ and grandparents’ perspectives on what needs to change. Practice: Social Work in Action, 26(4), 239-257.

D’Cruz, H., &Gillingham, P. (2016). Participatory research ideals and practice experience: Reflections and analysis. Journal of Social Work, 0(0), 1-19. doi: 10.1177/1468017316644704

D’Cruz, H., Gillingham, P., & Melendez, S. (2007). Reflexivity, its meaning and relevance for social work: A critical review of the literature. British Journal of Social Work, 37, 73-90.

Vaus, D.A. (1995). Surveys in Social Research (4thEd.). Allen & Unwin: St Leonards, NSW.

Drury-Hudson, J. (1997). A model of professional knowledge for social work practice. Australian Social Work, 50(3), 35-44.

Ferguson, H. (2016). Researching social work practice close up: Using ethnographic and mobile methods to understand encounters between social workers, children, and families. British Journal of Social Work, 46, 153-168.

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