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paper代写-Learning and Development through Play

2018-02-07 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Learning and Development through Play,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了游戏学习。游戏贯穿了人的一生,从年轻到年老,其中游戏对幼儿的健康和学习尤为重要。通过适当程度的游戏,幼儿可以学习交流和语言技能,培养想象力,开发自己,掌握社会技能,提升心理素质和身体健康等等。不过,游戏也应当遵循适当的原则,这样幼儿才能成长得更好。

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1. Introduction

Plato has ever proposed that “you can discover more about a person in an hour of play than in a year of conversation” (Dave Yount. 2017), from which his emphasis on play can be readily detected. As a matter of fact, the importance of play runs through a person’s whole life, from young till old, and play is especially important toward the health and well-being of young children. Taking full advantage of play can contribute the most toward the health and well-being of the vast majority of young children. Therefore this essay will report on the significance of play in promoting learning in the early years. It is hoped that this report can give some insightful suggestions as for how to promote emotional, personal and social development for children aged appropriately 2-3 years.

2. Theories of Play

Firstly, various theories of play will be mentioned and all these theories of play aim to analyze critically the concept of play and describe the cultural, social and historical aspects of its development. Generally speaking, theories of play can be mainly categorized into two types and they are respectively classical theories and modern theories (Eleni Mellou. 2006). On the one hand, the classical theories primarily include theories like Cathartic theory, Compensation theory, Competence/Effectance theory, Practice or Pre-exercise theory, Preparation (instinct/practice), Recreation or Relaxation theory, Recapitulation theory, Surplus energy theory, etc. (Eleni Mellou. 2006). Two typical representatives of the classical theories are Schiller and Spencer and they have already been identified as classical theorists. From the perspective of Schiller and Spencer, play is aroused by a demand to release surplus energy (Herbert Spencer. 1977). That is to say, children are fed by their parents so that they have extra energies to spend via play. Children can consume their surplus energy through play. From the perspective of Eleni Mellou, though all classical play theories are with serious weaknesses because of their discredited and outdated beliefs about energy, evolution and instincts, they are still crucial in that they are the basis for the appearance of the modern play theories later on (Eleni Mellou. 2006).

On the other hand, the modern theories are theories such as Cognitive theories, Bateson’s Meta-communicative theory, Arousal Modulation theory, Psychoanalytic theory and so on (Eleni Mellou. 2006). Different from Schiller and Spencer, Freud, a modern theorist, implies that play not only involves in the searching for pleasure but also mastery (Sigmund Freud. 1975). In the point of view of Freud, play can help children become defensive and adaptive in dealing with anxiety. The effect of play in handling anxiety can be justified by the phenomenon that play therapy is used by therapists in the reality. Play therapy is applied by therapists to enable children to get rid of frustrations and to offer a chance to analyze children’s conflicts and their ways to handle those conflicts (Sandie Rollins. 1972). Children may feel less threatened and be more likely to deliver their true thoughts while playing (Joan Santer, Carol Griffiths and Deborah Goodall. 2007). Besides, the idea that children can learn by play has also been suggested by Freud (Sigmund Freud. 1975), which can well indicate that play can really influence much toward the learning process of young children.

In addition to Freud, Lev Vygotsy, another modern theorist advocating cognitive significance of play, regards play as a “leading activity” (Lev Vygotsky. 1978) and it is believed that play can provide chances for children to use language and sensory to cognize the world, leading to their better adapting themselves to the society. Lev Vygotsy has pointed out the positive correlation between language development and play, the positive correlation between problem solving skills and play as well as the fact that the social interaction of play develops cognition (Lev Vygotsky. 1978). From all these three aspects, a fair knowledge can be obtained that play can affect young children via influencing any one aspect of those young children.

Apart from that, it is added by Eleni Mellou that both the classical play theories and the modern play theories have paid attention to play’s effect in personal expression and social adaptation (Eleni Mellou. 2006). That is to say, the relationship between play and cognitive development is clearly suggested in both the classical play theories and the modern play theories.

3. Types of Play

With the theories of play being illustrated at length in the above, what follows is the four different types of play that promote communication and language appropriate for children aged appropriately 2/4 years. At the same time, the benefits of these four specific types of play toward communication and language appropriate for children aged appropriately 2/4 years will be referred to.

3.1 Free Play

In the paper of Joan Santer, Carol Griffiths and Deborah Goodall, they have defined free play in the way that “children choose what they want to do, how they want to do it and when to stop and try something else” (Joan Santer, Carol Griffiths and Deborah Goodall. 2007). Based on this definition, it can be easily found that children are with no objectives from the adults and there are no lessons imposed on them in free play. The more concrete condition in free play is that the children take the lead to play and they follow the instructions from the adults. Usually, the adults will provide the necessary materials and space for children in free play and they may sometimes even join in the play together with those young children. However, free play does not necessarily indicate an absence of boundaries but instead children are well controlled in the context of play so as to ensure their safety.

Free play is inevitable toward the development of brain for 3 years old children (Brooke De Lench. 2014). The great significance of the development of brain is known each and every one of us. Therefore the fact that free play can benefit the development of brain for 3 years old children can undoubtedly notify the inevitability of play for 3 years old children. In addition to the benefits in the development of brain, Brooke De Lench has also mentioned that free play is the process for young children to build their own confidence and self-esteem in that those children need to make decisions themselves while playing (Brooke De Lench. 2014). Moreover, what is more convincing is that there is also scientific evidence for the benefits of free play toward the development of brain. It is mentioned in the paper of Sergio Pellis that free play can change the connections of the neurons at the front end of chidlren’s brain (Sergio Pellis. 2014). And it is added that the changes can help children with making plans, regulating emotions and solving problems in the due time (Sergio Pellis. 2014). The same as Sergio Pellis, Joan Santer, Carol Griffiths and Deborah Goodall as well put forward the same view that free play can help shape children’s ability of language skills and communication (Joan Santer, Carol Griffiths and Deborah Goodall. 2007).

3.2 Heuristic Play

Heuristic play is defined by Elinor Goldschmied, an educational psychologist, as the type of play that can enable children to discover and learn on their own. And free play is initiated by children themselves and the adults are simply the observers (Elinor Goldschmied. 2014). Kathy describes the time for a heuristic play should be long enough to guarantee that children can completely explore the objects and pack up. Heuristic play is appropriate for children at all age groups (Kathy. 2010). 3-year-old children start to develop linguistic abilities and they begin to understand the functions of objects and ponder on how they can utilize them (Anita M. Hughes. 2016).

Armand D’Angour has related play to education and he proposes that play is one of the most efficient pedagogical ways in education, which is right why he recommends play as an educational method at an elementary level and students’ learning by play (Armand D’Angour. 2013). Moreover, it is added by Armand D’Angour that Plato deems that interest and motivation also matters a lot in students’ learning. In the opposite, he is objective to the use of force in education when taking the truth that “knowledge which is acquired under compulsion obtains no hold on the mind” into consideration (Armand D’Angour. 2013).

3.3 Risk Play

Risk play, from the perspective of Helen Little and Shirley Wyver, is an exciting and anti-phobic process that may engage in a potential of physical injury, and the play provides chances for challenging, exploring boundaries, learning about injury risk and testing limits (Helen Little, Shirley Wyver.. 2008). But from the point of view of Steven Pinker, to face danger is one effective way for children to develop mental mechanisms such as the emotions of caution and fear, phobias for stimuli like confinement, risky social encounters, heights, predatory and venomous animals as well as a motive to get familiar with the situations in which each and every one won’t bring harm to one another (Steven Pinker. 1995). It is further suggested by Steven Pinker that boys tend to explore more engaged and larger than girls in risk play.

The benefits of risk play can mainly be embodied via its effect on young children’s becoming clear about their exploring the environment, ecology, improving and practicing various different physical techniques for developing endurance, skeletal quality, muscle strength and so on. At the same time, risk play can influence much toward young children’s obtaining competence in fighting, aggression, social experience and competition in subordinate and dominant roles (Helen Little, Shirley Wyver.. 2008).

3.4 Pretend Play

Pretend play is an activity for children of early years to cultivate cognitive and social-emotional development. It is stated by Renee Peters that pretend play is a thinking skill in that children should be aware of what is occurring when they pretend to play (Renee Peters. 2012). By 3 years old, the ways for children pretend to play can be construction sites, fairly castles, dinosaur battles and tea parties, etc. And it is added that pretend play calls for children’s imaginations because it includes pretending with actions, objects and situations. Pretend play is a process for children to transfer from thinking in a concrete way to an abstract way.

Pretend play is good for children in many aspects. Pretend play motivates children to discover the unknown and to take risks, during which children can foster social skills and initiate and keep social relationship with peers. The functions of social relationship with friends can enable children to get companionship, ego support, intimacy, physical support, social comparison, stimulation (Renee Peters. 2012). Children simply imagine that they are playing. They try out feelings, ideas and roles, which involves them ‘reading’ and ‘writing’ long before they actually nurture those skills (Renee Peters. 2012).

4. The Importance of Developmentally Appropriate Play

Developmentally appropriate play is the play that should fit in well with children’s development and learning and it should be adjusted based on children from different experiential backgrounds. In this way, young children can smoothly have fun from play so that the developmentally appropriate play can reach its goal. And it has also been raised by Gaye Gronlund that children in developmentally appropriate classrooms seem to suffer considerably less stress and they enjoy improvements in emotional development and motivation (Gaye Gronlund. 2010). Developmentally appropriate play follows individual characteristics and it satisfies the needs of each and every young child.

5. Conclusion

To sum up, a reasonable conclusion can be drawn that the importance of developmentally appropriate play can really exert significant impacts on children’s holistic development and learning and that is why young children should be highly motivated to play. Through play, young children can develop communication and language skills, develop imagination, discover themselves, master social skills, mental and physical health and so on. However, the play should follow the developmentally appropriate approach so that young children can grow better.

Bibliography

Anita M. Hughes. 2016. Developing Play for the Under 3s: The Treasure Basket and Heuristic Play. Book Now Ltd. London.

Armand D’Angour. 2013. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece. American Journal of Play. 5(3). Pp 293-307.

Brooke De Lench. 2014. Unstructured Free Play Important for Kids: Critical to child development says report from American Academy of Pediatrics. Online available from: http://www.momsteam.com/successful-parenting/unstructured-free-play-important-for-child-development-experts-say.

Dave Yount. 2017. Statements That Plato Never Made. Online available from: http://www.mesacc.edu/~davpy35701/text/plato-things-not-said.html.

Eleni Mellou. July 07, 2006. Play Theories: A contemporary review. Early Child Development and Care. 102 (1). Pp 91-100.

Elinor Goldschmied. 2004. People under Three Young Children in Day Care (2nd edition). Routledge, London & New York.

Gaye Gronlund. 2010. Developmentally Appropriate Play: Guiding Young Children to a Higher Level. Online available from: http://www.journalofplay.org/issues/4/2/book-review/developmentally-appropriate-play-guiding-young-children-higher-level-gaye.

Herbert Spencer. 1977. The Principle of Psychology. Boston: Longwood Press.

Joan Santer, Carol Griffiths and Deborah Goodall. 2007. Free Play in Early Childhood: A literature review. National Children’s Bureau.

Kathy. May 28, 2010. Heuristic Play: a simple guide. Online available from: http://www.kathybrodie.com/articles/heuristic-play-a-simple-guide/.

Lev Vygotsky. Ed. Michael Cole. 1978. Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Helen Little, Shirley Wyver. June 2008. Outdoor play: Does avoiding the risks reduce the benefits? Australian Journal of Early Childhood. 33(2).

Renee Peters. June 11, 2012. How to Make the Very Most Out of Pretend Play in the Toddler Years? Online available from: http://www.positiveparentingconnection.net/six-benefits-of-pretend-play/. 

Sandie Rollins. 1972. Theories about Play in Early Childhood Education. Online available from: https://edupsychology.wikispaces.com/file/view/Theories+about+play.pdf.

Sergio Pellis. August 6, 2014. Scientists Say Child’s Play Helps Build A Better Brain. Online available from: http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2014/08/06/336361277/scientists-say-childs-play-helps-build-a-better-brain.

Sigmund Freud. 1975. Beyond the Pleasure Principle. New York. Norton.

Steven Pinker. 1995. The language instinct: The new science of language and mind. London: Penguin Books.

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