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英国paper代写-The culprit is child labor

2018-02-10 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The culprit is child labor,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了导致童工问题的原因。对于童工问题,应归咎于失控的学习成本。由于贫困家庭无法负担高额的学费和学杂费,导致他们的孩子要么从来没有机会上学,要么被迫辍学,要么没有接受教育的权利,不得不为生存而工作。如果政府可以加大对教育的扶贫,减少学习所需的学费和杂项费用,那么就可以让更多的贫困儿童上学,从而减少童工。

child labor,童工,论文代写,essay代写,paper代写

When a child is forced into labor due to unfortunate circumstances, a seed of spiraling misfortunes becomes sown. Despite the efforts made by people and institutions in power around the world, child labor continues to exist globally, as governments and societies have not paid enough attention to the rising cost of education as an even deeper cause of poverty and child labor. They have only made statements and attempted to address this issue in a bid to create a brighter, freer, more positive and advantageous environment for children vulnerable to exploitation all around the world. Their efforts still are insufficient and inadequate. There remains much room for improvement in the fight against such a global conundrum. What is worse is that it has become resilient (Doepke & Zilibotti, 2009).

As such, in this essay, I will argue that since people’s inability to afford tuition fees for sending their children to good schools is the ultimate reason of child labor. I will discuss how high educational fees—as a key aspect of poverty contributes to the continuation of child labor, further showing  how governments and NGOs can take steps to handle this problem. What could possibly keep such an atrocious social problem as child labor from continuing? What are some of the long lasting consequences of it? In fact, the efforts the world has made are in the wrong direction. Laws against child labor employment alone can’t address the issue, but lower tuition needs to be spread.

Runaway learning cost should be blamed for the problem of child labor. First, because poor families can’t afford high tuition with a rather limited income, many children who find themselves in the traps of labor either seek such jobs are forced to do such due to a poor life and inadequate income that fails to support the whole family. And this can seen as the fundamental cause for this issue. Some children from low-income families either never have the privilege of being able to attend school or are forced to drop out, either are not given the rights to an education or have to work for survival. Penniless folks, especially those have to bear so many children that their own wages cannot be sufficient, tend to ask their children to find jobs to get minimum wages. Such a decision is commonly prompted by their desire to alleviate serious poverty and even shrug off destitute. For example, Nike, an American shoe maker, was accused of giving child labors US $2.17 per day, which is“just enough to survive to the following day to work again”(Harsono, 2016). To make matters worse, low-income families can’t afford the high tuition. Besides tuition, those families have to pay miscellaneous fees, which goes beyond their economic limit. The condition of poverty can be exacerbated when education fees are excessive. High educational cost is what keeps children from compulsory learning and forces them to find employment.

Child labor calls for far lower cost compared to adult workers. And most of them are unqualified for mental work owing to their poor educational background so they have to resort to manual labor for little pay. This forces them to opt for manual work that usually has intense consequences on their emotional and psychological health and physical development. Even though parents are unwilling to expose their children to such dangers, they are often driven to do so due to the pressures and struggles that come with lack of money. On the other hand, many ill-intended and empathy- lacking businesses risk employing poor children to reduce operation cost at the expense of defying national and international laws as well as a sense of humanity.

However, I dare say, the cause of legal loophole can play a role only when child labors emerge. If there is no child labor, then ill-intended employers would not secretly hire children by exploiting legislation loopholes. Legal deficiencies are just superficial causes while poverty is what breeds the phenomenon. However, the condition of poverty boils over when education fees are beyond poor families’ economic status. In other words, it is high education fees that prompt those employers to exploit legal holes.

If government investment in education can be increased to cut down on tuition and miscellaneous fees required by learning, more poor children would be allowed to go to school, and thus illiteracy of children can be reduced accordingly. For example, before the Communist party took power in 1949, 80% of Chinese was illiterate, and enrollment rate was below 20% for elementary school and about 6% of junior secondary school. However, illiteracy rate fell to 3. 58% in 2008 and 99% Chinese children were literate (China. org, 2009). This is because the new Chinese government rolled out policies of compulsory education that ensure children’s rights to receive education by slashing tuition (China. org, 2009). This makes learning an affordable thing for most families, even the poor ones.

Apart from that, education remains far from priority in less-developed regions, where education systems have not been transformed into a nationwide system. In China, for example, despite the policy of compulsory secondary education, waves of poor children in education-weak regions have been forced to become labors to make money for their families. Such lack of support from the government and other systems, including a lack of institution and support from those in power puts the less privileged in risk for falling into the traps of forcing their children into becoming child labors so as to have a means to basic survival. The building of schools calls for improved equipment and quality faculty. However, both of them cost a lot. Each classroom needs a smart computer if it is to provide students with quality learning environment. Network ought to be brought in the educational environment so that students can gain access to outer sources and share learning information with their peers. And this is based on financial power. If the governments are incapable of affording the fees of educational building, then millions of families have to pay for it. As such, some low-income or even middle-class families have to take extra economic burden due to high tuition.

Apart from that, a good school usually needs a quality library that offers a diversity of books. Children need to read to broaden their horizon as a way of learning assistance. However, the building of library also adds to the cost of education. And this establishes a high threshold for many poor families, booting them out of education. Those families could be scared away by such high educational fees.

All these are the culprits for the phenomenon of child labors and the top reason among them must be destitute, which especially can be contrasted by high tuition fees, while the others are all secondary causes. And even the secondary causes arise from the cause of poverty. As such, to eliminate child labor, the paramount thing to do is to eliminate population under destitute and make education fees more affordable to them. Unfortunately, governments and NGOs just overlook the deepest culprit but resort to superficial measures such as bans and product boycott. They just let the biggest “criminal” go and even generate some side effects. This can be explained by the following:

To fight for the rights and interests of children and protect more of them from sufferings, some people boycott the companies that have been proved to employ under paid children as their workers. Such forms of protest have gained popularity in recent years as a means to protest through civil disobedience. It is a means of showing determination and rage over ending the act of exploiting children into becoming laborers. To illustrate this, in 2008, Trade Aidheld a campaign to ban imports of goods involving the use of child labors to produce them, using the legislation “Customs and Excise Act 1996” (Wikidot, 2009). As a result, approximately 70,000 children were booted out of garment industry (Murshed, 2001). Nevertheless, such practices turn out to produce side effect and does no good to alleviate the widespread phenomenon or provide long lasting improvements. Such boycotts deliver a blow to both child labor market and adult labor market because some enterprises employ both children and adults as their employees (Di Maio & Fabbri, 2013). As such adult labor market could be dragged down.

Some developed, wealthy countries have created bans, laws and regulations against products made by children as a good step towards eliminating child labors. This means they not only forbid child labors at home, but also refrain from taking goods from abroad that were produced by child labors as a way of protesting the act. However, such efforts seem to have little to no real impact as Child laborers still exist and even tend to increase (Doepke & Zilibotti, 2009). As such, it is fair to say boycott and legal bans alone can’t solve the problem. Rather, to make education affordable and eliminate poverty is the very significant way.

Besides, labor unions in different countries scramble to set up regulations as a kind of assistance. Social organizations are making efforts to supervise businesses for fear that they secretly employ children to save money. For example, ILO, standing for the International Labor Organization, has drawn up the Child Labour Convention and calls for the efforts from India (Gautham, 2015), which is a big home to numerous child labors. From my perspective, the issue of child labor should not be addressed by the efforts from labor unions, but educational organizations who are entitled to increase or reduce tuition fees.

Such issue has not been alleviated effectively despite all those efforts but tend to rebound, as we have mentioned above. It is because what the governments and charitable organizations do is just an expedient method. The deepest cause——poverty——has not been eliminated. That is why more and more child labors come along. To root out the phenomenon of child labor, we need to improve their living conditions, not just boycott products or roll out policies. There have been solid evidence that demographics with higher living standards, higher income and education level decreases the chances of a child becoming a poorly paid laborer, which means economic conditions have a great deal to do with child labor market (Manacorda & Rosati, 2011). If living standards could be elevated to a large degree, the number of low-income families would decline, and as a consequence, children who are forced to quit school and find employment would decrease as well. After all, the employment of children is illegal. For instance, between 1993 and 1997, child labor in Vietnam declined by 30 percent and at the same time, this country’ s GDP grew by around 9 percent (Edmonds, 2005). This means if economic conditions improve, then the issue of child labor can be alleviated. Economical, class and educational levels all contribute to whether a child will fall prey to the misfortunes of being a child labor. When the economic status is improved, more families can afford educational fees so that their children can go to school rather than go to work. They can enjoy their rights of learning, instead of serving as labors.

Child labors, who have gone through the pressure and extraneous work that seems rare to their more educated and higher income peers, end up having a miserable and inferior childhood than other. Such experience could remain engraved in their mind lifelong, leaving an ever-lasting scar on their bodies and hearts. This could shape and influence how those children think about life and world and what their future is about. If what they have comes through an array of ordeals, blood and sweats, they could hold a passive and negative attitude toward the world. And this may lead them to committing crimes out of revenge as well as cause them to develop psychological issues. These issues could lead to issues with the justice system. As such, child labors could evolve into the pool of law offenders who can be seen as high-risk people in the society. Some businesses, particularly labor-intensive ones, are inclined to hire young, physically healthy workers to expand profits as a way of exploitation. Less-educated children have to settle with manual work that has little pay and poor working conditions for workers. That means, those poor children have much less room for career development owing to inadequate knowledge and weak educational background. The well-educated children are usually more likely to have more promising careers and opportunities than the less educated and more likely to achieve success instead of being forced into labor at an early age. Child labors are prone to turn into young labors, then middle-aged labors and then aged labors. It is a cycle that is difficult to get out of. What is in store for them is strenuous and menial work that can even last even until retirement age. However, the fundamental way to solve such issue is by no means policies, boycott, bans and hype-up, but economic development and affordable tuition fees.

Work Cited

China.org.cn. “60 Years of Educational Reform and Development”. Fromhttp://www.china.org.cn/government/scio-press-conferences/2009-09/11/content_18508942.htm 14 September 2009. Access on 13 January 2017

Di Maio, Michele, and Giorgio Fabbri. “Consumer Boycott, Household Heterogeneity, and

Child Labor.” Journal of Population Economics, vol. 26, no. 4, 2013, pp. 1609–1630.

Doepke, Matthias, and Fabrizio Zilibotti. “International Labor Standards and the Political

Economy of Child-Labor Regulation.” Journal of the European Economic Association,

vol. 7, no. 2/3, 2009, pp. 508–518.

Edmonds, Eric V. “Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?” The Journal

of Human Resources, vol. 40, no. 1, 2005, pp. 77–99.

Gautham, Siddarth. “India should ratify Child Labour Convention soon: ILO”. Fromhttp://www.linkedin.com/pulse/india-should-ratify-child-labour-convention-soon-ilo-siddarth-gautham 10 August 2015. Access on 11 January 2017

Harsono, Andreas. “Nike Accused of "Slave" Child Labor”. Albion Monitor. Fromhttp://www.albionmonitor.com/9606a/nikelabor.html 2 January 2016. Access on 11 January 2017

Manacorda, Marco, and Furio Camillo Rosati. “Industrial Structure and Child Labor Evidence

from the Brazilian Population Census.” Economic Development and Cultural Change,

vol. 59, no. 4, 2011, pp. 753–776.

Murshed, Madiha. “Unraveling Child Labor and Labor Legislation.” Journal of International

Affairs, vol. 55, no. 1, 2001, pp. 169–189.

Wikidot. “Ban the import of goods produced with slave labour.” Fromhttp://progbills.wikidot.com/ban-the-import-of-goods-produced-with-slave-labour/ 8 May 2009. Access on 11 January 2017

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