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Paper代写:The Franco-Russian Alliance

2018-04-13 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The Franco-Russian Alliance,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了法俄同盟。1882年,德国、奥匈帝国和意大利签署了三国同盟,导致欧洲国家之间的关系越来越紧张。基于三国同盟的威胁,法国和俄国成为了秘密军事同盟。欧洲两大军事集团开始对峙的标志,并促成了20世纪初协约国的出现,导致了第一次世界大战的爆发。尽管法俄联盟没有持续太久,但它成为欧洲两极分化和暂时稳定的一个重要因素。

Franco-Russian Alliance,法俄同盟,英国论文代写,paper代写,论文代写

After the industrial revolution, Germany’s industrial growth was increasing fast, and it was dissatisfied with the traditional power. Germany determined to become a superpower by crippling France and Russia in what it hoped would be a brief and decisive war, like the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. In 1882, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy signed a Triple Alliance. The tensions between the European countries had never been higher. The enemy of an enemy is a friend. Thus, a Franco-Russian alliance was formed. The World War was imminent. The motivations of such an alliance are the rise and threat of Germany, the security of France, as well as the strategic and financial benefits for Russia. Although the Franco-Russian alliance did not last long, it has made a significant impact as a factor of polarization and temporary stabilization in Europe over two decades.

The rise of the German Empire is the process of iron and blood. However, the process of unification should not be simplified as the process of war, as there were multiple factors that determined it. The forces in the early 19th century that hindered the unification was not only from the feudal lords, but also the foreign powers that did not want the emergence of a powerful Germany (Craig, 173). These countries include France, Denmark, Australia and Russia. Therefore, Bismarck realized that only by taking advantage of the conflicts between European powers could Germany stand a chance to rise. Such a strategy was successful with the initial support of Britain in fear of France. Germany then broke the predicament into smaller problems, defeating Denmark, Australia and France one by one. These victories had effectively silenced the voices of opposition domestically, creating promising potentials for further development. the victories of Germany were then consolidated with economic reforms. A unified system was established within the country, enabling different territorial states to collaborate and benefit from each other economically. The economic alliance in Germany started to make commercial agreements with Netherlands, Greece, Turkey, Britain and Belgium, and was soon recognized regionally. These efforts have both promoted unification and raised the international status of Germany as an emerging power.

By the end of the 19th century, the economic, military and technology power of Germany had become the top of Europe and number two in the world. The traditional European powers, such as French and Britain, was then left behind by Germany (Kennan, 39). However, the political status of Germany was not equally developed as its economic and military aspects. Due to its geographic location, Germany was surrounded by France, Britain and Russia. There was little perspective in colonization, either, as Germany was a relative late starter. Therefore, Germany was anxious in establishing a new political order in Europe and be able to challenge France and Britain. Meanwhile, Austria-Hungary and Italy were having conflicting with Russia and France respectively. Therefore, little persuasion was needed for the two threatened countries to join the Triple Alliance. The singing of the agreement in 1882 symbolizes the final formation of it (Langer, 96). In order to respond to this dramatic disturbance to the regional political and military balance, Franco-Russian Alliance was formed between 1892 and 1917. Although Russia did not like France much in history, its relationship with Germany was going much worse. Germany had become the common enemy of the two countries. With the further expansion of German powers due to the Triple Alliance, the formation of Franco-Russian Alliance was more than necessary.

One of the major motivations for Russia to join the alliance was the need for foreign financial aids. Russia was once seeking help from Germany due to the domestic famine. However, the request was turned down by Wilhelm II. Feeling both insulted and financially embarrassed, Russia was in desperate need of help with its economic situation (Langer, 86). However, this financial dependence in the Franco-Russian Alliance had diminished the status of Russia from an equal of France to a more subordinate role. With the increasing failures of getting loans from the capital market in both Berlin and London, Russia turned to Paris as its final resort. However, financial aid often came with obligations, as French officials clearly specified the priority of political agreement over finances (Spring, 568). In a negotiation for a loan from France, the French demanded the construction of a railway that benefited it strategically, which the Russian side was in no position to refuse. Another loan from France in 1904 came with the promise of Russians to choose French factories for military and naval orders. In addition, specifications were made on where the loans would be spent on, usually projects that hold strategic value for France. Despite all the unpleasant obstacles, Russians did get solid help from France, which became the premise of the alliance formation.

As a force of such both size and strength, Russia was aware from the beginning that it would be dragged into an armed conflict. The rise of Germany was simply too influential to ignore, and a war between Russia and Germany was more likely than even due to the ambition of the latter (Spring, 567). As a result, acceptance of the financial aid from France was not only driven by need, but also a strategic move on the Russian side. Over one billion of rubles flew into Russia from 1892 to 1903, greatly alleviating the debt pressure and prompting the industrialization of the country (Spring, 570). By the 1880s, Russia was still a typical agricultural country despite the completion of the industrial revolution in the country. Realizing the importance of economic growth to the political and military powers for a country, the investment from France became the biggest opportunity for Russia. Foreign capital, from France primarily, was being used in the metallurgical, engineering, coal, oil and other heavy industries. Looking at the benefits that Russia was getting from the alliance, it is natural to find out what France was getting from it. Most of the benefits obtained by France was in terms of military relations (Spring, 576). From the very beginning, the Russians were feeling the “suffocating influence” from the alliance with France. Although France had been generous in helping Russia to build an army and supplying it with weapons, the military convention of Russia had been completely changed by French initiatives. Germany was to be regarded as the main enemy of the alliance, and an offensive nature of animosity was established against it. Backed by the financial aids, French was the alliance member that made constant requests, while Russia was doing its best to fulfill them. Through the Franco-Russia alliance, the force of Triple Alliance in Europe was successfully balanced, which led to temporary re-stabilization in Europe.

In response to the Franco-Russia Alliance, Germany felt threatened immediately as the two powers on its east and west side joined forces against it. The tension in Europe was approaching to a limit. The Schlieffen Plan is considered the representation of the German Anxiety. It is a plan of combat that aimed to defeat both French and Russian forces in the wars to come. After a deep analysis of the French and Russian forces, the military chief of staff of Germany, Schlieffen, came up with the idea of the plan. France remained the strongest enemy of Germany, even with the defeat in the Prussian-France wars (O’Neil, 29). On the contrary, Russia was lagging behind in military strategy even with over six million troops. Moreover, the vastness of Russia and lack of developed railway networks limited its ability to assemble a force quickly in response to offense. Therefore, Schlieffen came up with an idea taking advantage of the speed of German troops: by taking an initiative in defeating France in the western front, and turning east quickly to have a concentrated force against the Russians.

Schlieffen estimated that it needed more than six weeks for the Russian army to be assembled, giving Germany the adequate gap of time. In the basic arrangement of the Schlieffen Plan, the proportion of western and eastern fronts forces is about 8:1. The west wing on the western front is where the most elite German forces were allocated, which was the key to winning the wars for it (Zuber, 172). Although the plan sounded executable, Schlieffen had failed to consider the factors in reality: it is impossible for the German troops to stay in their best condition after the long ranges of traveling. Overlooking the British forces is another fatal mistake of the Schlieffen plan, as British intervention should almost definitely be expected once Germany made the first move. After the outbreak of WWI, the Franco-Russia Alliance was still acting its part against Germany, until the revolution in Russia started in 1917 and the Czar government was overthrown. This marks the termination of the short-lived Franco-Russia Alliance.

In conclusion, rise of Germany, security considerations from France, and the strategic and financial needs of Russia have been the major contributors to the Franco-Russian alliance. The rapid rise of Germany in the late 19th century is the result of the wake of the German nationalism. Through smart diplomacy and development in military strength, Germany quickly emerged as a regional power. However, its ambitions to extend such powers resulted in the concerns of its neighbors. The Franco-Russia Alliance was thus established in response to the threat. Through this alliance, Russia not only avoided immediate and direct conflict with Germany, but also gained essential amounts of financial support from France. In exchange for the benefits, Russia had to put up with the interference of France, as all the money came with demanding terms. Although the alliance was only sustained by the financial support of France for Russia and Russia’s relative “obedience” in letting France determine the political and military convention of the alliance, it created a balance in the European nations and a short period of stability. Although the Franco-Russia Alliance is short-lived itself, it has acted as a crucial force that increased the antagonism of Germany, which may have indirectly contributed to WWI.

Bibliography:

Primary source:

Langer, William Leonard. The Franco-Russian Alliance. II. The Conclusion of the Military Convention. London, 1925.

Secondary source:

Craig, Gordon A., and American Council of Learned Societies. Germany, 1866-1945. Clarendon Press, Oxford;New York;, 1999.

Kennan, George, F. The fateful Alliance: France, Russia, and the Coming of the First World War. New York, 1984.

O’Neil, William D. The Plan that Broke the World: The "Schlieffen Plan" and World War I. Nebraska: William D. O’Neil, 2014.

Spring, D. W. "Russia and the Franco-Russian Alliance, 1905-14: Dependence or Interdependence?" The Slavonic and East European Review, vol. 66, no. 4, 1988, pp. 564-592.

Zuber, Terence. Inventing the Schlieffen Plan: German War Planning, 1871-1914. Oxford University Press, Oxford;New York;, 2002.

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