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Paper代写:A comparison of the financial system between China and the us and Europe

2018-04-20 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇paper代写- A comparison of the financial system between China and the us and Europe讨论了中美欧金融体系。世界金融发展史,是一部金融压制与反压制、金融掠夺与反掠夺的历史剧。就目前世界金融对抗实际看,美国是全球金融霸主,欧洲货币联盟是其最大敌手,以德法为首的欧洲货币联盟国,在世界范围内与美国展开金融业竞争,尤其是在欧洲地区,欧盟强大的货币金融体系也为美国所忌惮。而随着中国经济金融的崛起,中国也在不断寻求获取亚洲金融领域的领导地位,但长期遭受美欧金融体系的压制。本篇paper代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

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The history of world finance is a historical drama of financial repression and anti-repression, financial plunder and anti-plunder. Is currently the world's financial practices against, the United States is the world's financial dominance, the European monetary union is the biggest enemy,, led by Germany and France, the European monetary union countries, with the U.S. financial industry competition worldwide, especially in Europe, the European Union's powerful monetary and financial system is fear for us. With the rise of China's economic and financial industry, China has been seeking to gain leadership in Asian financial sector, but it has been oppressed by the financial system in the us and Europe for a long time.

The establishment of China's modern financial system began in 1978 with the reform and opening up. After more than 30 years of development, China has established a relatively sound modern financial system. Among them, the people's bank of China as China's central bank, after years of reform and development, the people's bank of China has become the Chinese government implement monetary policies, regulate economic development, macro-prudential regulation important in the financial institutions. As of the beginning of June 2016, China has diversified and highly marketized financial institutions, and has built a multi-level and developed financial market. Such as the establishment of the "big four state-owned Banks", the rise of joint-stock Banks and the ice-breaking of private Banks' approval; Non-bank financial institutions, namely insurance companies, investment companies, fund companies and trust investment companies, etc. And the overall development of the stock market, money market and small and micro loan market. In addition, China has established by the central bank in the lead "a line of three will be" type financial macro-prudential regulation system, namely, the China banking regulatory commission, the people's bank of China insurance regulatory commission and the securities and futures commission, the maximum extent, guarantee the stability of the country's financial system and the prosperity and development of the financial sector.

The U.S. financial system and the U.S. financial system have a history of more than 200 years. As early as the early 19th century, the United States initially built a modern financial system. The federal reserve banking system, commercial banking system and non-bank financial institutions are the main components of the U.S. financial system. Compared with other countries, the us financial system is undoubtedly the largest and most perfect, and it is said that the annual added value of the us financial industry accounts for about 1/5 of us gross national product. In addition, the United States is the world's economy of scale, further improve the U.S. financial system impact on the rest of the national economic and financial strength, even announced, chairman of the federal reserve to raise interest rates or lower interest rates, will make the unrest of global financial markets.

As the birthplace of modern finance, Europe has long been a prominent place in international finance. The core of the European financial system is the European central bank (ECB), headquartered in Frankfurt, Germany, which was established on June 1, 1998, mainly in charge of euro zone financial and monetary policy. In February 1992, the head of the European member states signed the Maastricht treaty, in January 1999, Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Italy and other 11 eligible countries to become the first member of the euro zone, the euro was officially released, the European central bank also formally established. Eu Banks and non-bank financial institutions, and to scatter them in the euro zone in 18 countries, among the more famous financial institutions have a central frankfurt-based deutsche bank and credit agricole, etc. Since the establishment of the European monetary union, the eu financial regulatory powers have been relatively scattered, until the European debt crisis, the European Union to the financial regulatory reform, such as set up the ESRB, CBSG ESFS was established and the establishment, to strengthen the response to the crisis of financial supervision cooperation between member states. The European financial system is also the biggest challenger to the us financial system, after the us financial system.

The central bank is the most important part of the financial system of a country or region. It not only enjoys the monopoly power of money issue, but also ACTS as the bank of the government to supervise the financial industry and the state Treasury. Moreover, it is the lender of last resort, and thus central bank has a central role in the modern financial system.

On December 1, 1948, the people's bank of China was composed of north China bank, beihai bank and northwest peasant bank. In September 1983, the people's bank of China was appointed by the state council to exercise the functions of the central bank of China. The law of the People's Republic of China on the People's Republic of China, adopted by the eighth National People's Congress in 1995, defines the law of the people's bank of China as the central bank. Since its founding, the people's bank of China has played an irreplaceable role in maintaining the stability of China's financial system, promoting the development of national economy, and formulating and implementing monetary policy.

The central bank is the federal reserve system, which was established in 1913 under the federal reserve act and is mainly composed of the federal reserve board, the federal reserve bank and the federal open market committee. The fed is both official and private, which is different from all the central Banks in the world. Design shall prevail the private sector, the federal reserve bank of America will make the federal reserve system can realize power between regions, between the private sector and the government, as well as the spread between bankers, businessmen and the public. The fed is the bank of the bank, the government's bank, the watchman of the American economy, and the most influential central bank in the world.

The European central bank is the most complex, with the largest number of institutions, mainly composed of the European central bank and the central Banks of the 27 eu member states. The ECB's governing council and executive board constitute the ECB's main decision-making body. The European central bank is mainly engaged in maintain price stability and maintaining the independence of the central bank, it usually through open market operations, working capital often convenient and reserve system, to achieve its monetary policy. Since not all eu members use the euro, the ECB cannot act as the monetary unit of the eurozone. Even so, the ECB is playing an important role in maintaining the stability of eu member states' economic and financial markets and participating in global financial affairs.

The main body of China's financial regulation is the people's bank of China, which does not have other regulators, but the entire financial institution. Contains the central bank's regulation of financial institutions, organizations, scope of business, assets and liabilities, interest rate, exchange rate and the reserve all aspects, such as power range is limited to the territory of China, but take the concrete function than the federal reserve and the European central bank system. The central bank, the federal reserve's regulatory authority over various financial institutions and their business activities, is an important guarantee of the stability of the nation's financial system. The bank of America has a high degree of independence, and only when serious problems arise and cannot be resolved in time, the fed directly intervened and ordered it to close or fire its board members. By comparison, the European central bank is a member of the European central bank, and its rights are greatly restricted, and it is mainly controlled by the most powerful central Banks, such as Germany and France.

The people's bank of China is the state organ of the state council and the state organ that administers the national financial affairs. It is part of the state organ and is under the jurisdiction of the state government. The fed is an independent phase. A high central bank is independent of the government, especially the Treasury. The European central bank is closely linked with the government, which is run by the European Union, but the main countries are Germany, France and so on. So, the Chinese people's relations with the government's most closely to the central bank, followed by the United States, the European central bank system is the most don't close, it also determines the state intervention of the Chinese financial system color is the most strong, the biggest influence in the world financial system, the European financial system and the problem of the most difficult coordination and the relationship between the government.

The gap between central and European central Banks is clear. According to data show that by the end of 2013, the total assets of about 5 trillion dollars of the people's bank of China, at the same time the fed assets of about $4 trillion, the European central bank is about $312 trillion, the bank of Japan is about $22 trillion. In particular, since 2011, the people's bank of China has the largest assets in the world central bank, far exceeding the size of central bank assets such as the us and Europe. This fully demonstrates that China's financial system has greater operational space and funding sources in the gathering of wealth and the economic development of service entities.

Sovereign currency is the cell of a country or district financial system, its international status is the important embodiment of the international financial system status, therefore, it is necessary from the dollar, euro and RMB international status, to further compare the financial system in the us and Europe.

The dollar, the euro and the renminbi are the most important global currencies, and these credit currencies have different positions in international financial markets. According to the data, the us dollar accounted for 4208% of the world's top ten payment currencies, 3124% of the euro and 203% of the RMB. In addition, according to the international monetary fund, in 2014, the yuan was the seventh largest in the world's official foreign exchange reserves, while the dollar and the euro were the first two. Of those, the IMF said the yuan accounted for 11 per cent of official foreign exchange assets in 2014, compared with 637 per cent for the dollar in foreign exchange reserves. As the renminbi is included in the SDR basket, the renminbi has been identified as a freely usable currency and together with the dollar, euro, yen and sterling constitute the SDR basket. In this basket of currencies, the us dollar accounts for 4173%, the euro is 3093% and the yuan is 1092%, which is the third major currency in the world.

No matter from the pay, official foreign currency reserve assets, or a basket on the proportion, the dollar is the currency of the hegemon, as long as the U.S. hangs on to the its global absolute power in the field of financial status, you can sit on the top of the food chain, enjoy the hegemony of the financial system, and even through the crisis and reduce its huge debt pressure. The euro continues to challenge the status of the dollar. The euro system, built on Germany's core, is not only a hidden danger to the dollar, but also the most direct challenge to the core interests of the United States. The renminbi is still a growing international currency and is still unable to compete against the dollar and the euro. Therefore, from the perspective of the international status of sovereign money, the us financial system is the most powerful and the hegemon. Europe's financial system is second and a strong contender; China's financial system is still only playing an important role in China, in a subordinate or even repressive position.

We will actively play the role of the china-led Asian infrastructure investment bank and enhance the international influence of China's financial system. In October 2014, including China, India, Singapore, etc, the first batch of 21 intention founding member finance ministers and authorized representatives signed in Beijing, jointly decided to set up the Asian infrastructure investment bank, and was officially opened in January 2016. The Banks can embody the Chinese try to play capital in diplomatic strategy in the international financial strength, it is worth looking forward to the investment Banks will be more likely to become the system guarantee of the internationalisation of the renminbi, convenient yuan "sea". In addition, it is helpful to use the funds well. Through the aiib, Asian countries can finance each other and make big projects, such as high-speed railway and water conservancy projects across the country, and urbanization in countries with poor infrastructure.

We will strengthen regional cooperation between the people's bank of China and the central bank of the developing countries, and strive to promote the internationalization of the RMB and strengthen the regional importance of China's financial system. The inclusion of the renminbi in the SDR basket is an important milestone in the integration of the Chinese economy into the global financial system and a win-win outcome for the world and China. At the same time, China also efforts to promote the progress of the RMB to become an international major currencies, increase the proportion of China's foreign trade in yuan, increase the share of global trade settlement, improve the RMB foreign direct investment and international credit, international bonds and notes of the yuan share trading, prompting RMB share of international financial transactions.

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