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Paper代写:A theory of justice

2018-06-13 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇paper代写- A theory of justice讨论了《正义论》。在《正义论》中,罗尔斯从民主角度以“正义的两个原则”重新阐释了自由主义关于自由和平等的理论,坚持个人基本权利平等不受侵害,通过差别原则的再分配提高最不利者的经济收入,将民主从政治领域发展到经济领域,对差别原则进行“民主的解释”,并坚持机会向社会成员平等开放,使社会中的每个人都受到公平的待遇,从而扩大了民主的范围。本篇paper代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

A theory of justice,正义论,paper代写,代写,essay代写

In A found of justice, rawls from the perspective of democracy to "the two principles of justice" to interpret the liberalism theory of freedom and equality, adhere to the personal basic rights equality are not violated, by increasing the difference principle of redistribution of the adverse economic income, trying to push the democracy from politics to economics, to the interpretation of the "democratic" difference principle, and adhere to the opportunities open to the equality of social members, everyone in the society have been treated fairly, so as to expand the scope of democracy. Rawls advocates the protection of individual rights from the perspective of democracy. He opposes the tyranny of the majority against the minority and the elitist rule of the minority against the majority. In addition, in the political liberalism, rawls is proposed on the basis of "overlapping consensus", further discusses about the contemporary values of democratic political development against the background of the new direction, the deliberative democracy has carried on the theoretical arguments and explore. Rawls's theory of justice is of great significance and practical value for China to promote socialist democracy.

Rawls's A theory of justice has been widely discussed in the academic circle since its publication, and there are countless treatises on the basic viewpoints of "fairness" and "justice" in the book. About A going of justice research mostly focus on the basic concepts such as "the two principles of justice" of the text reading and about "fair justice and utilitarianism" basic point comparing these two aspects. Rawls has said that A found of justice is the work of democracy, but because few book about "democracy" of the concentration of A clear, academia has little about A going of justice in the related research of democratic thought. This paper attempts to interpret rawls's justice theory from the perspective of democracy and explore the democratic appeal of his justice theory.

Rawls wrote A theory of justice in the 1960s and 1970s when American society was in turmoil. Internationally, the United States in the Cuban missile crisis and the Vietnam war mire, at the same time, domestic continuously the outbreak of the civil rights movement, black struggle and conflict in schools, especially the gap between rich and poor is highlighted, all of which has exposed the defects of the system of capitalist democracy. In the face of such social reality, how to establish A social common interests "well ordered society", how to develop A new system of capitalist democracy, do both respect the majority opinion and to protect the rights of minority, it becomes A going of justice, rawls writing to explore and solve the problem.

In rawls's view, social contradictions intensified has very close connection with utilitarianism prevails, therefore, on A theoretical analysis of utilitarianism and response is A going of justice, rawls writing an important purpose. In modern times, people for the good and have good judgment standard and the ancient times, the pursuit of utility and benefits to replace the pursuit of virtue, "how can we improve the utility" has become a new social theme. The theory of utilitarianism is in line with this trend, becoming a political moral theory with strong attraction, and gradually becoming the mainstream moral view and political value orientation of the society at that time. The simplest description of the utilitarian theory is that "an act or policy that can become a member of society and create the greatest happiness is morally justified." In utilitarianism is the most fundamental theoretical standpoint, the good must take precedence over due, about utility computing is the first fundamental principle of all exclusive, "effect" is the only standard to judge a moral behavior.

Utilitarianism has a strong attraction in practice, which makes people more accepting. First of all, its judgment on results relies on intuitive calculation rather than complex measurement and comparison. Moreover, utilitarianism takes the "best interests of the majority" as its fundamental position, convincing people that the gains and losses of individual interests are positively correlated with the gains and losses of the whole society. Rawls oppose utilitarianism on the basic idea of a "good prior to the proper", think under the theoretical structure of utilitarianism, people are no longer as a purpose of existence, but as a means, and with liberal democratic position gives a brief introduction of the basic ideas of utilitarianism.

First, utilitarianism foothold on the theory of "the greatest number of people" as the interests of the majority of people meet as judgment as the standard, in order to achieve the interests of most people to sacrifice the interests of the "minority" behavior choice, the utilitarianism appears to be legitimate and self-evident. Rawls that justice is the basic premise of the people as ends rather than means, "justice denied to make some people enjoy greater benefits and deprive others is right", no one has the disposition of the basic rights and interests of others, democracy is not only to protect the rights of the majority, but also protect minority rights. The realization of the interests of the utilitarianism attempts to most people deny and sacrifice the interests of the minority, violation is a basic principle of democracy, is to the minority rights violation, the choices based on utilitarianism is not justified. As a form of modern democracy, representative democracy has some similarities with utilitarianism. In a representative democracy people entrusting their countries participate in the governance of political power to their elected representatives, is made up of representative assembly or other political institutions instead of people to participate in the management of state affairs, follow the principle of the minority is subordinate to the majority in the decision-making process, emphasizes the activities most people desire. The theory of representative democracy, which equates the interests of the majority with those of the state, has contributed to the tyranny of the majority against the minority.

Secondly, rawls questions utilitarianism's argument that the increase of total social welfare brings about the increase of individual welfare. A prominent feature of utilitarianism is: "don't care about it - apart from indirect - how to meet the total amount of allocated between individuals, as it, except for indirect doesn't seem to care about how a man in the different time allocation his meet", it emphasizes the increase or decrease of the total social welfare, but do not involve the distribution of personal benefits such as specific issues. In fact, there is no necessary link between the increase in total social welfare and the increase in personal welfare, but the two seem to be positively correlated intuitively. Always take the form of total social welfare and individual welfare but in concrete form, even if this means that utilitarianism can carry on the computation to the social welfare, also hard to qualitatively determine whether social welfare is consistent with the individual specific benefits, whether can really bring personal welfare increase. Rawls further pointed out that utilitarianism assessment and for the interests of the largest on the principle of social choice is actually a kind of random expansion of personal selection principles, seems to be able to agree on the establishment of social goals and implementation, but in fact, this is just a kind of ideal condition, it ignores the diversity of social members, personal principles would be able to get the approval of the other members of the society is not sure, so shake the foundations of social members can reach a consensus, thus further action selection and determination of consistency.

Rawls in the review of utilitarianism, expressed his want to "define a substitute for general and utilitarianism, which can replace the changes in its various forms as a kind of choice object's theory of justice" theory of intention. As a liberal theorist, rawls tries to reinterpret a series of democratic political issues such as fair freedom, democratic equality, "minority - majority relationship" and so on.

In contemporary society, the traditional theory of liberalism is more and more difficult to deal with the complex social problems, as a liberal scholars rawls tries to liberalism for new research and development, in order to better able to cope with the contemporary political and social problems. Liberalism originated from the enlightenment of humanistic spirit, emphasis on personal values and rights, and through the "freedom" and "equality" these two dimensions of "personal rights" further explanation, and these two dimensions is liberalism theory of "traditional" and "traditional" Rousseau. Locke's tradition emphasizes the freedom of individual rights and advocates the inviolability of individual rights. Created by individual labor in Locke's view, private property, individual has absolute control on their private property, others has no right to interfere in or enjoy other people's private property, and all countries protect citizens' property and other rights against infringement. Rousseau advocated equal freedom and equal democracy. In the social contract, there is no above individual power and the rule of some special powers in the collective field, contract assembly as the highest expression of the people's common will, is the ideal Rousseau democratic republic. Rousseau gives full democracy to individuals, encourages citizens to participate in politics, emphasizes that only people enjoy supreme power, and realizes theoretical interpretation of democratic spirit.

Locke and Rousseau for freedom, equality, each have emphasize particularly on, in practice, the two traditional theory also had different degree of response and practice, and further raises response and reflection on the liberalism ideological trend. Locke's traditional theoretical views on the inviolability of individual rights and the importance of personal rights and property rights have directly led to people's indifference to real political activities, and negative freedom has become a universal political attitude. In addition, negative liberty as a direct result of the ruling elite, a small number of elite instead of the general public to public choice and political decisions, and opportunities for people to participate in political activities are reduced, gradually marginalized, the minority of management and rule of the majority of people, the social democracy caused a lot of restrictions and sabotage. The French revolution was the direct practice of Rousseau's equality theory from BBS to the square. "Political party" democratic movement into a square, rational submerged in the democratic enthusiasm, especially late revolutionary legal rule ceased to exist, so that the democratic movement towards its opposite, eventually at the end of the power to crush the fanfare of the democratic revolution. The unlimited promotion of equality and the excessive expansion of democratic power were the direct causes of the failure of the French revolution. The great gap between this practical movement on the spirit of democratic equality and its theoretical ideas has forced people to admit that, while democracy is a good thing, it should always be treated with caution.

Faced with the reality of the difficulties encountered in the contemporary liberalism and questioned, rawls put forward in order to "justice" as the breakthrough point, opposed to pull the emphasis on "freedom" and "equality" of traditional theory, choose the development in the form of A "third way" liberalism, its work going of justice is seen as A political philosophy in contemporary revival. Rawls "justice" principle was discussed in brief explanation for "justice as fairness", he respects the sanctity of individual rights and personal existence, emphasize the protection of basic liberties, adhere to the "human is the ends rather than means" basic philosophy standpoint, advocate moderate compensation on vulnerable populations. Rawls's discussion on justice aims at constructing a just social structure, protecting everyone's rights and interests from infringement and realizing everyone's equality. Justice is another form of democracy in rawls's view. The study of justice is actually a new exploration of democracy in the contemporary era. As the essence of democracy, equality is mainly reflected in the distribution of rights, opportunities and wealth. Therefore, rawls's research on justice is mainly focused on these two aspects.

Rawls first put forward the theoretical hypothesis about the "original state". Under the veil of ignorance, people in the original state are not aware of their actual social status, natural endowment, social environment and so on. Second, rawls assume that people in a social medium is scarce, must get the basics by mutual cooperation, at the same time, he also assumes that people, each other through this theory set "cooperation + cold" made "everyone in the original position considering other people's position, to achieve a certain agreed principles of justice." So-called "agreed justice principle" is refers to through rational calculation ability and to choose the game between the various interests, in the original position people admit that "everyone on the basic of equality of all people have the most extensive freedom system compatible similar freedom system should have an equal rights", to achieve personal interests without infringement by others or sacrifice basic consensus, that is "fair justice" the two principles of the first principle, the principle of "equality and freedom". Rawls "the principle of equality and freedom" as the first principle of justice, that citizens enjoy equal basic liberties, do not allow the exchange between the basic rights and utility, and involves the wealth and income distribution, the difference of status and power system, must also conform to the equality of the citizen's freedom and opportunity. Through this assumption, rawls proves that the moral principles of utilitarianism is not only unfair, but also from the logical justifying the fairness of justice as equality to ensure the basic personal rights and interests are not violated the fundamental position of legitimacy.

In original position even though people know nothing about his actual social status and wealth, but as a rational man, for self-protection and fear of her true identity, social status, they all agreed to without damage and sacrifice your own interests under the premise of, in the most disadvantaged people to make a certain amount of compensation. Rawls's second principle of justice is based on the assumption of the original state and this kind of analysis and evaluation of rational human psychology. Specifically, the second principle includes two aspects: social and economic inequality should be arranged in such a consistent with the storage principle of justice, is suitable for at least the best interest of the beneficiaries; Position and status are open to all under conditions of equal opportunity. Rawls admitted outside the equal basic rights, the real social difference exist between social members, only give priority to the most disadvantageous group interests, to guarantee system from the program at least justice.

Rawls believes that real justice must first guarantee a kind of social system fairness, and guarantee the basic fairness between people with institutional fairness. The second principle of justice seems to be a kind of inequality in the system, it allows people in economic status and wealth inequality, and also consider the compensation way about redistribution between the interests of the individual, but in fact, the second principle of justice is in maximum limit to realize a real fair. People are born with difference, both in the natural differences of qualification, there are also differences in the social environment, the difference will not disappear completely because the cover of the veil of ignorance, any to avoid the real difference determined pursuit of absolute fairness on the actual allocation is not correct. Rawls advocates that under the precondition of recognizing differences, the gap between different groups can be adjusted through the relevant social system, so as to pursue the relative equity in effect. Rawls inequality between all sorts of people expect the arrangement in the form of the chain, to ensure that the difference principle in improving the underlying people's expectations and accordingly improve all the other people's expectations of each layer, in this way, difference principle when satisfied everyone will benefit. Visible, although rawls emphasizes to the disadvantage of profit and loss as the basic standard judgment justice, but he insist on the principle of difference and mutual incompatible, never to harm the interests of the condition of good people for the most adverse interests increase, to maximize the guarantee for the realization of fairness and justice.

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