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paper代写-Low carbon economy

2018-06-14 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Low carbon economy,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了低碳经济。低碳经济,是指在可持续发展理念指导下,通过技术创新、制度创新、产业转型、新能源开发等多种手段,尽可能地减少煤炭石油等高碳能源消耗,减少温室气体排放,达到经济社会发展与生态环境保护双赢的一种经济发展形态。

Low carbon economy,低碳经济,英国论文代写,论文代写,paper代写

Low-carbon economy is an economic model based on low energy consumption, low pollution and low emissions. It is another major progress of human society after agricultural civilization and industrial civilization. Low carbon economy essence is energy efficient utilization, clean energy development, the pursuit of green GDP, core is energy technology and emission reduction technology innovation, the industrial structure and institutional innovation and fundamental change of human survival and development concept.

The "low carbon economy" is set against a backdrop of severe challenges to human survival and development caused by global warming. As the global population and economic scale continuous growth, energy use brings the environment problem and its cause of constantly for people to know, is more than the dangers of smog, acid rain and photochemical smog, elevated atmospheric co2 concentration in the global climate change also has been identified as the fact that does not dispute. Under this background, the "carbon footprint", "low carbon economy", "low carbon technology", "low carbon development", "low carbon way of life", "low carbon society", "low-carbon city", "low carbon world" and a series of new concepts, new policy arises at the historic moment. And energy and economy that values of big changes as a result, may will be gradually out of a new road toward ecological civilization, namely: abandon the traditional growth pattern of the 20th century, direct application of the new century of innovation, technology and innovation mechanism, through the low carbon economic model with low carbon way of life, realize the development of society can hold.

What are the industrial chains of low-carbon economy? According to the analysis, there are four main types.

First, environmental protection industry, mainly including sewage treatment, fixed waste treatment and so on. The environmental pressure is bigger, in order to support the green revolution, environmental protection industry must get rapid development, including fixed waste treatment has become a rapidly growing industry, and resources to the industry as a striving direction.

Two, the energy industry, including industrial and energy saving, such as waste heat recovery power generation, process improvement and energy-saving materials, including building energy saving, intelligent buildings, energy-efficient appliances, energy-saving materials and energy-saving lighting route can be summed up in this industry. In addition, automobile energy saving can also be included in the energy saving industry, such as hybrid cars. However, some people in the industry believe that hybrid cars are not an energy saving industry, but an energy alternative industry.

Third, reduce emissions. It also includes the by-product heat and waste heat and waste heat power generation, but in order to describe the convenient and considering the increase the importance of the traditional energy efficiency and carbon emissions, therefore a unique industry, it involves the clean coal, IGCC, CCS, agricultural emissions increase sinks, etc.

Fourth, clean energy, including wind, solar, geothermal, tidal and biomass energy of new energy sources, as well as clean energy sources such as hydropower and nuclear power. It also includes ways of transmitting energy, such as high voltage, ultra-high voltage and the resulting smart-grid business.

The ideal form of "low-carbon economy" is to fully develop "sunshine economy", "wind energy economy", "hydrogen energy economy" and "biomass energy economy". But at the present stage, the cost of solar power is 5-10 times that of coal-fired hydropower. Hydrogen energy, as a secondary energy source, is far from the commercial target of using clean energy sources such as wind power and solar power. The development of biofuels at the expense of food and oil crops has contributed to higher prices for food, meat and cooking oil. Around the world, by 2030 solar power has only reached 10% of the world's electricity supply, and the world's proven reserves of oil, gas and coal will be in the next 40, 60 and 100 or so exhausted. Therefore, in the "carbon fuel civilization" to "solar civilization era" transition in the coming decades, "low-carbon economy", one of the important meaning of "low-carbon life", is to save the consumption of fossil energy, time guarantee for the popularization of new energy use. Especially from the perspective of China's energy structure, low carbon means energy saving, and low carbon economy is an economy based on low energy consumption and low pollution.

"Quit your hobby! Oriented environment day theme of low carbon economy "prompt people," low carbon economy "means not only manufacturing to speed up eliminating backward production capacity of high energy consumption, high pollution, promote energy conservation and emissions reduction of scientific and technological innovation, and reflect on what means to guide the public used to is a waste of energy consumption patterns and way of life, increased emissions pollution of bad habits, so as to fully tap services and consumer life the great potential of energy saving and emission reduction.

Eliminate the habit of "convenient consumption" at the expense of high energy consumption. Convenience is a popular value in modern business marketing and consumer life. Many convenient ways of consumption in people inadvertently waste a huge amount of energy. For example, experts in refrigeration technology estimate that 70 percent of supermarket electricity is used in freezers, while open freezers consume 20 percent more electricity than glass doors. Therefore, an open refrigerator of a medium-sized supermarket consumes about 48,000 kilowatt-hours of electricity a year, which is equivalent to about 19 tons of standard coal, 48 tons of carbon dioxide, and about 190,000 liters of clean water. There are about 800 supermarkets and 6,000 convenience stores in Shanghai. If the glass door freezer widely used large and medium-sized supermarkets, customers need to lift a finger when shopping, about 45.21 million degrees can power saving a year, equivalent to about 18000 tce, save about 45000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions.

Eliminate the consumption habit of using "disposable" products with "associated energy conservation and environmental awareness". In June this year, the country began to implement the "plastic limit order". The unrestrained use of plastic bags is one of the most typical hobbies that people have been pursuing for years. It is only a "one-dimensional" awareness of environmental protection that the public should understand that the meaning of "plastic restriction" is to curb white pollution. In fact, the significance of the "plastic limit" is also to save the source of plastic - oil resources, carbon dioxide reduction. This is a "connected" energy conservation and environmental awareness. According to the national energy conservation and emission reduction manual of the ministry of science and technology, a national reduction of 10% in plastic bags will save about 12,000 tons of standard coal and 310,000 tons of carbon dioxide in the production of plastic bags. Associative environmental consciousness can not only guide the public to understand "limit are shaping is fuel-efficient energy-saving", also to guide the public to realise that "saving water and energy saving", to realise that change to use "disposable" goods consumption habits and saving energy, reducing carbon emissions, the relationship between response to climate change.

Abstain from "face consumption" and "luxury consumption" at the expense of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Luxury cars accounted for the fastest growth in China's car market in the first quarter of this year, with imports of premium, large-engine BMW cars up more than 82% from a year earlier, and SUV sales of large-engine sport cars up 48.8% from a year earlier. In contrast, many developed countries are willing to use small cars and small cars. Promoting a low-carbon lifestyle does not always oppose the entry of cars into households, but advocates the use of private cars in moderation. The penetration rate of private cars in Japan is 80%, but it is not completely dependent on private cars. In Tokyo, private cars generally travel between 3,000 and 5,000 kilometers a year, while in Shanghai, private cars travel between 18,000 kilometers a year. The unrestrained use of private cars in China has become a hobby of ostentatious consumption. In some cities, the roads are blocked by one or two hundred private cars transporting children to and from key schools. Because people will "modern lifestyle" meaning the one-sided understanding for "more enjoy the electrification, automation provides convenience", led to the daily life more and more dependent on high energy consumption of power system technology, often several hundred meters short or several floors of ladder, depend on motor vehicles and the elevator instead of walking. On the other hand, people are consuming more and more high-calorie food, such as meat, fat and other high-calorie food produced at the cost of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, and the incidence of obesity is also increasing. Some urban weight loss groups are also fond of the artificial environment that consumes electricity, such as air-conditioned gyms and electric running machines, for slimming consumption. The environmental cost is to increase emissions of greenhouse gases.

We will comprehensively strengthen the scientific diet balance that is dominated by a low-carbon diet. A low-carb diet, or low-carb diet, focuses on limiting the amount of carbohydrates consumed and increasing the amount of protein and fat consumed. At present, the daily diet of Chinese citizens is mainly the production form of rice, wheat and other food crops and the diet structure of "south to north". And low carbon diet can control the blood sugar of violent change, thereby improving the body's antioxidant capacity, inhibit the production of free radicals, the long-term there will be stay in shape, fitness, disease prevention, such as slow aging benefits. However, due to the current limited awareness and acceptance of the national population, it cannot be transformed immediately. Therefore, a low-carbon diet will be a long - term, difficult work. However, it is believed that the low-carbon diet will change the Chinese people's eating habits and lifestyle as the general public's awareness level rises.

The grand strategy of saving energy and reducing consumption may depend on a lot of subtleties. It should be noted that this "nuance" is not only the details of many energy-saving technology improvements in manufacturing and construction, but also many energy-saving details in daily life habits. For the world's most populous country, the amount of energy and carbon emissions wasted in the habits and habits of everyone seems small. Once calculated by a large population multiplier, it is a huge amount. Science and technology workers and social scientists have a responsibility to the public from all aspects of daily life in low carbon economy, low carbon life of creative activities and popularization, make the party's congress put forward "energy conservation and emissions reduction", "build a resource-conserving and environment-friendly society", "to strengthen the construction of ability to cope with climate change and make a new contribution to protecting the global climate" of the scientific development decision-making, into the practical action. Developing a low-carbon economy is the responsibility of China's "global citizens" and a rare opportunity for China to develop sustainably and transform its economic development model. To promote low-carbon economy, the government leading, including formulate long-term guidance strategy, incentives for scientific and technological innovation, energy conservation and emissions reduction, and renewable energy use of policies, tax breaks and subsidies, government procurement, the measure such as green credit, to guide and boost low carbon economy development; However, it is also necessary for enterprises to identify the direction and follow up consciously to promote the "collective action" of low-carbon economic development. Only when more enterprises change their current passive status and consciously follow the development of low-carbon economy will there be a realistic foundation and future hope for China's transition to a low-carbon economy.

In the context of global warming, "low-carbon economy" based on low energy consumption and low pollution has become a global hotspot. Europe and the United States developed countries vigorously promote with high efficiency, low emissions as the core of "low carbon revolution, focus on the development of" low-carbon technologies ", and the industry, energy, technology and trade policies of major adjustment, to early movers and industry commanding heights. The battle for a low-carbon economy has begun quietly around the world. This is both a pressure and a challenge for China.

One of the challenges: China, which is speeding up industrialization, urbanization and modernization, is in a stage of rapid growth of energy demand. China, long poor and backward, is committed to improving and improving the living standards and quality of life of its 1.3 billion people in pursuit of an all-round well-off life, and to bringing about sustained growth in energy consumption. "High carbon" has become a major constraint to China's sustainable development. How to ensure the continuous improvement of people's living standards without repeating the old path of developing western developed countries at the expense of the environment is a difficult problem that China must face.

The second challenge: the resource conditions of "rich coal, little gas and lack of oil" determine that China's energy structure is dominated by coal, and the choice of low-carbon energy resources is limited. Hydropower accounts for only about 20 per cent of electricity, thermal power accounts for more than 77 per cent and "high carbon" dominates. According to the calculation, every tons of coal combustion will produce 4.12 tonnes of carbon dioxide gas, 30% and 70% more than oil and gas per ton, and it is estimated that over the next 20 years China's energy sector power investment will amount to $1.8 trillion. The large-scale development of thermal power is a threat to the environment.

Challenge 3: the main body of China's economy is the second industry, which determines the energy consumption is the main sector of the industry, and industrial production technology level backward, and increased high carbon characteristics of China's economy. According to the data, China's industrial energy consumption grew by 5.8 percent annually from 1993 to 2005, with industrial energy consumption accounting for about 70 percent of total energy consumption. Energy consumption in high-energy industries such as mining, steel, building materials, cement and electricity accounted for 64.4 percent of industrial energy consumption in 2005. It is a major task to adjust the economic structure and raise the level of industrial production technology and energy utilization.

Challenge 4: as a developing country, the biggest constraint of China's transition from a "high carbon" economy to a "low carbon" economy is that its overall scientific and technological level is backward and its technological r&d capacity is limited. Although the United Nations framework convention on climate change, developed countries have an obligation to provide technology transfer to developing countries, but the reality is a far cry from, China had to rely mainly on the introduction of commercial channels. China's transition from a high carbon economy to a low carbon economy in 2006 is estimated to cost $25 billion a year. Such a huge investment is obviously a heavy burden on developing China, which is not yet rich.

In a word, whether China can achieve the highest level of world development in the next few decades largely depends on China's ability to cope with the development and adjustment of low-carbon economy. China must take action to actively cope with the severe challenges as soon as possible, finally realize the "high carbon" era to "low carbon" age span, truly achieve the harmonious development of China's economic and social, human and nature. Energy conservation, environmental protection and new energy industry will be the main direction and new profit growth point of the future industrial development of various countries. We must make great strides towards a low-carbon economy through continuous efforts on all fronts.

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