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Paper代写-The philosophical problem of artificial intelligence

2018-08-09 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The philosophical problem of artificial intelligence,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了人工智能的哲学问题。人工智能不仅是人类科学史一场划时代的革命,而且还是对人类精神世界的一次重大挑战。哲学作为人类对自我的认识和理解,面对人工智能这一全新的科学研究,从人类的生存、发展这一利益出发,对人工智能最新成果加以重新审视和评价,从而为人工智能研究提供最大程度的理论支持。

artificial intelligence,人工智能的哲学问题,英国论文代写,论文代写,paper代写

Artificial intelligence, a young discipline born in the middle of the 20th century, has had a significant impact on human production and life style, and also triggered heated philosophical debates. By summarizing the historical development of artificial intelligence and its latest research, this paper probes into the philosophical problems in its research.

In the 1950s, with the rapid development of modern science and technology, artificial intelligence changed from science fantasy to reality. In a short period of less than 50 years, the research on artificial intelligence theory has been deepened and its practical application has been expanded. Up to now, it has been applied in almost all disciplines. Artificial intelligence is deeply affecting human beings not only at the level of technology, but also at the level of philosophy. Its development will have a profound impact on human beings.

Artificial intelligence and so far has not a unified, clear definition, the reason to roughly the following two points: artificial intelligence is not a pure belong to a particular subject knowledge but the mutual penetration of the subjects, the fusion of complex, it involves computer science, mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, psychology, system science, information science, neurophysiology, and many other subjects. These disciplines naturally come up with different definitions of ai from different perspectives. Artificial intelligence is also a subject of constant development. With the deepening of research, people constantly supplement and revise previous knowledge, and its definition cannot be determined.

Although there is no exact definition of ai, we can describe it from different aspects. In electronics and computer science, it's about "figuring out how to get a computer to do something that's usually thought of as intelligent. In psychology, it is "an interdisciplinary subject that combines computer science with psychology to realize the intelligent behavior and function of human beings by computer". In philosophy, it is "the science of simulating and extending human intelligence, which can be used to guide the design of intelligent machines and to elucidate human intelligence". Combined with these definitions, we can try for artificial intelligence are defined as follows: artificial intelligence is relative to the case of human intelligence, it is based on computer science, information science, life science, philosophy and other disciplines, study how to make intelligent machines capable of simulating human intelligence activity or intelligent system, its purpose is to extend a science of human intelligence.

From the birth and development of artificial intelligence to today has gone through a not long and extremely difficult road. In October 1950, Alan Parmesan, from the United Kingdom, Turing published a famous paper, "can machines think?" in which he first proposed the concept of "machine thinking" and designed the famous "Turing experiment", from which he was respected as the "father of artificial intelligence". In 1956, McCarthy, minsky, shenon and rochester in the United States initiated an academic seminar at Dartmouth university. At this conference, many important papers on artificial intelligence were published, which announced the birth of artificial intelligence. In its later development, artificial intelligence has formed several major schools, which can be divided into "symbolist" schools, "connectionist" schools and "behaviorism" schools according to their respective thoughts and research methods.

The main thought of the "semiotics" school is the hypothesis of the symbolic operating system and the principle of limited rationality. The research method is mainly functional simulation, which USES computer to simulate the functions of human cognitive system to realize artificial intelligence. Its research method is a basic method in artificial intelligence research, and has made many important achievements.

The main thought of the "connectionist" school is the neural network and the connecting mechanism between neural networks and learning algorithm. It thinks that artificial intelligence should be more important than structural simulation, that is, simulating the structure of human physiological neural network. Great success has been achieved in voice recognition and image processing.

The main thought of the behaviorism school is control and perception-action control system. Thinking that intelligence depends on perception and action, "intelligence" can do without "knowledge". Remarkable achievements have been made in the study of robotic insects.

In the early stage of artificial intelligence research is primarily a game, problem solving, theorem proving, and character recognition, since the late 70 s, in machine learning, artificial intelligence expert system, knowledge engineering, intelligent information retrieval, artificial life aspects of study a lot of progress has been made, successfully established some computers with different degree of artificial intelligence system, and in scientific experiments, medical diagnosis and military is actually used.

Describing the difficulty of ai research, McCarthy once said that "if we want to make a difference in ai, we need 1.7 einsteins, two maxwell, five Faraday and three Manhattan projects." There is, in fact, one missing from McCarthy's list: philosophers. The absence of philosophy is unthinkable for such an extremely complex science as artificial intelligence, which is closely related to human development. Artificial intelligence has profound philosophical significance. It is an extremely difficult task for scientific development and an important way for human to know themselves. Artificial intelligence is so intertwined with philosophy that students at Stanford's computer department study heidegger's philosophy. Artificial intelligence is not only an epoch-making revolution in the history of human science, but also a major challenge to the human spiritual world. At the same time, philosophy, as human's cognition, understanding and care of self, is confronted with the new scientific research of artificial intelligence, starting from the ultimate interest of human survival and development, to re-examine and evaluate the latest achievements of artificial intelligence, so as to provide maximum theoretical support for the research of artificial intelligence.

Because of the particularity of the research object of artificial intelligence -- human thinking -- it has posed a sharp challenge to philosophy since its birth. For example, is there any essential difference between artificial intelligence and human intelligence? Can machines think? Will machines surpass humans and replace them? What is the role of artificial intelligence in promoting human development? The core of these problems is consciousness and thinking. This is nothing new. Philosophers have long debated the question of consciousness, the most famous of which is the French philosopher Descartes' "I think, therefore I am". Humans are conscious, can think, can feel emotions, can have subjective experiences about the world, but can machines be conscious? The positions of scientists and philosophers fall into four broad categories. First, consciousness cannot be described by material processes, and no science is advanced enough to create consciousness. Second, consciousness is the materialization of the human brain, which is so complicated that it is impossible for science to understand. Third, consciousness is the possibility produced by a process that can be understood and replicated, despite extreme difficulties. Fourth, consciousness is not something special and can be generated automatically by a machine. The four views can also be seen as the optimistic and pessimistic views in the study of artificial intelligence. The main characters of pessimism are philosophers such as searle and dreyfus. Searle also proposed the famous "Chinese room" model for the Turing test to show that "computer programs can never replace the human mind."

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