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Paper代写:European cultural identity

2018-10-10 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇paper代写- European cultural identity讨论了欧洲文化认同。文化认同是欧洲一体化顺利发展的基础,但因为民族国家的差异性而形成的文化认同危机又对一体化产生着负面影响和制约作用,所以只有采取现实主义态度和举措,才能促成欧洲文化认同的进一步深化,从而推动欧洲一体化向纵深方向发展。本篇paper代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

European cultural identity,欧洲文化认同,paper代写,代写,essay代写

Cultural identity is the solid foundation on which the European integration process going smoothly, but because of the differences between national and cultural identity crisis and the negative influence on integration and restriction, only take the realistic attitude and measures will contribute to further deepening European cultural identity, so as to promote the further direction of European integration.

Throughout the European integration, from the European coal and steel community to the European Community and the European Union more than half a century of existence, because of historical and cultural homology, the convergence of internal development since modern times, and the strengthening of the cultural policy of the eu, the European Union to build a certain cultural identity, and has become the solid foundation on which the European integration process going smoothly. "European cultural identity becomes the second characteristic of European integration", "the common development and political union of European politics can hardly be realized without European cultural identity and European citizens with European consciousness". However, from a philosophical perspective, the objective premise of identity is existence of differences, and identity is to "seek common ground while reserving differences" through mutual understanding. Therefore, while we see that cultural identity plays a positive role in the development of European integration, we should also see cultural differences, as well as the centrifugal force of exclusion between the same level and different levels, which will form a crisis of cultural identity.

Constructivism representative Alexander winter once pointed out: "in the collective identity are everywhere in the process of evolution of resistance." In the process of integration, the cultural identity at the regional level of Europe is further strengthened, and the cultural identity at different levels is also strengthened, such as national cultural identity of member states, etc. On the other hand, the crisis of cultural identity in European integration is also increasingly intensified.

Tracing the history of Europe, common cultural heritage or so-called "European culture" exists. It is generally believed that Greek culture, Roman law and Christian doctrine are the source of European history and culture, and these common historical and cultural traditions help to provide europeans with a common "European consciousness". However, these Shared cultures and histories are far too broad in comparison with the established and deeply rooted national cultures and traditions of European countries, and the power of cultural identity that the history of Europe as a whole can provide the common collective memory of its inhabitants and enable them to enjoy a sense of common destiny is limited. The nation state is the product of European history. In the historical process of the formation of various nations and nation states in Europe, the cultural identity has been deeply branded. Smith in his book of nations and nationalism of the era of globalization when it comes to European identity once said: "with France, Scotland, Catalan, Poland or Greece the certainty, stunning, compared to traditional culture and national European identity is empty, no features, more like all the people and for the whole faint a sum up of all kinds of culture, the existing things didn't do any supplements. Europe is merely a arena, a battleground, for competing cultures and identities.

Therefore, in the process of integration, the construction of collective identity, cultivating members citizens' sense of belonging to the European Union, is the inevitable requirement and the trend of integration, but for member states, to protect our national identity intact is the nation state in one of the important tasks in the regional integration process, because it is related to the legitimacy of governments and national collective self-esteem.

Many of the problems in the current European Union can use the contradiction between the European cultural identity and ethnic identity to explain, in the process of integration, the lack of cultural identity has led to the general public for the integration of transaction enthusiasm is not high, the constitution of its domain, the existence of contradictions and the outside pressure is obvious to all the facts. In 2005, France, as an established member state, said "no" to the European constitution, which was a great challenge for the eu in the development of cultural identity. The French are worried that the entry into force of the European constitution treaty will lead to the loss of national and cultural subjectivity. They are worried that a large number of illegal nationals will flow into France and the proportion of French people in the total population will decline, thus changing the national and cultural character of France.

In a political system, open communication between citizens is the important precondition for formation of political will, while the lack of a common language, while English is common, but still can not be replaced by each member of the official language status, the European Union more than 20 official language co-exist for cross-regional exchange created insurmountable divide, this leads to a long time can't broad public and political discussion within Europe, according to the discourse of European public communication space and platform to form public opinion. The work efficiency of the eu is more or less affected by it. Due to the frequent disputes and protests on language issues, the diversity of language has indeed brought great challenges to the construction of the whole European consciousness and collective identity.

Is commonly believed that cultural identity which is formed by the European civilization mainly includes the Christian civilization, rule of law, human rights, freedom and equality, individualism, rationalism, such as cultural concepts, also including the system of constitutionalism, separation of powers, universal suffrage, representative democracy, etc., and the Christian civilization became a member of the European Union to accept the new main cultural standards. In the spring of 1994, the European Union explicitly ruled out membership of all orthodox former Soviet republics, except the Christian Baltic states. But in fact, with the development of the integration process, the eastward expansion of the eu has begun to break such a situation.

Enlargement to the east is a grand vision of the European Union, which will unify Europe in a larger geographical area. As of May 2007, the European Union had 27 member states. However, "the inclusion of some new members means increasing the diversity of the community", which also means adding some difficulties to the coordination and integration of different cultures. From the perspective of cultural identity, the common cultural development of Europe only touches the "old Europe" of the European continent less. For the newly added member states, the common European consciousness will become more vague. Because they have less and less in common with "old Europe" in terms of culture, language, customs and historical experience, especially in central and eastern Europe, some of which have formed their own Slavic cultures, mixed with Catholic and orthodox traditions. Turkey, which applied to join the European Community in 1987, has been rejected by the eu despite generally better economic indicators than the ten countries that expanded eastward for the fifth time. "cultural identity" is the main problem. With the deepening of European integration and the eastward expansion of the eu, the contradiction of various ethnic and cultural differences will be highlighted, which will directly affect the cooperation within the eu and further affect the political process of integration.

European integration is an elite-driven process, and the vision and framework of European Union goals are the product of elitism. From the perspective of European culture development, cultural elitism dominates European culture. The eu has always relied on a group of prominent technocrats and political leaders who, with wisdom, conviction, determination and a sense of mission, have planned, influenced and advanced the process of integration. But because of the limits of the European Union's political structure, it has been politically distant from its citizens. The constitution of the European Union is a process dominated by elitism. The fact that the constitutional treaty was rejected in France and the Netherlands reveals the real problem of the contradictions between popular democracy and elite democracy that have always existed in modern democracy. Meritocracy has long made it difficult for people to express their wishes, and the accumulated doubts and fears have erupted.

For the vast majority of eu affairs, ordinary people have no choice but to accept the top-down arrangement passively. In the construction of European identity, there is no synchronization between the two: the higher level of cultural identity contains more rational elements, while the lower level of cultural identity contains more perceptual elements. Europe's political elites, thinking about Europe's place and role in the world, want to expand and deepen; Ordinary people believe that the eu should be a perceptive one, which contains more geographical, historical, economic and cultural factors. Although the eu has repeatedly stressed its aim of "laying the foundations for an ever closer union of the peoples of Europe", it has been the most cooperative and favourable. Second, it would help to establish stable and lasting relations between peoples, avoid possible tensions in international relations and ultimately ensure peace in Europe.

The eastward expansion of the eu also fully demonstrates the cultural intention of the eu. For the first time, the Amsterdam treaty directly linked political and cultural conditions to membership. It made it clear that admission to the union would be delayed if the applicant state seriously violated the principles of democracy. However, there is a problem of cultural transformation and integration of the recipients in the past, whether it is the admission of Greece, Spain, Portugal, Finland, the admission of the ten countries of eastern Europe and the accession of Romania and Bulgaria and the discussion of the Turkish league. The European Union has a set of cultural policies to help candidates reform their domestic systems to help them meet standards as soon as possible. In addition, the eu has also strengthened cultural exchanges and cooperation with candidate countries through bilateral and multilateral agreements and other means, and increased cultural funding and integration for these countries.

Naturally, the eastward expansion of the eu is the common demand of the eastern and western European countries, but for the process of eastward expansion, people also called for not unlimited expansion, because "the expansion across the European line will not deepen the eu, but only break up the union, a Europe that does not recognize the cultural identity of Europe will face the revival of nationalism".

In addition, the European Union deepening and the enlargement of forward progress can't be a straight line, between members of economic and social development level of relative difference, and the resulting different interest demands, is always the main factors affecting integration make substantive progress, this based on the economic interests of disputes within the eu and the political compromise is always directly or indirectly, consciously or unconsciously, and social and cultural factors are intertwined. After all, the cultural transformation and integration is a difficult process, and the pace of eastward expansion is mainly steady. Excellent European historian Norman Davis also thinks: "Europe must go from the current model, and in the long run, is bound to unification of Europe, but it will be a process of mutual break-in, and there will be resistance."

The leadership of the political elite cannot be denied that European integration has come to this day. However, the important promotion within any community, such as the signing of treaties or agreements, the transfer of decision-making authority at supranational level, and the establishment of political institutions, etc., is not only based on the efforts of political elites, but also requires the understanding and acceptance from the social and cultural levels of the public of all member states. The crisis over the treaty has forced Europe's political elite to respond to popular demands. Dialectically, the rejection of the European constitution is not a bad thing. The constitution itself is one has the huge political documents, for the generation of European identity have induced huge political effect, thus cause the attention of people about it and discuss, from the European public politics and citizen identity, have certain significance of "enlightenment", because it will be the eyes of people and political enthusiasm from the original national level gathered on the European level, this kind of cross-border exchanges, communication from different points of view, helped to bring about the common sense of European identity. But elites should realistically see integration as a gradual process, and any radical approach is irrational. Eu economic integration development in recent years, making the speed and scale of the European Union economic cooperation is more and more fast, has gone far beyond the speed and scale of the "European cultural identity", and even beyond the current European cultural identity can hold and the scope of the accept that is bound to cause people psychological and accept ability limit, even to create feelings of resistance and confrontation. Especially with a single currency and an unprecedented fifth expansion, the eu needs a period of social and cultural assimilation in which citizens of both old and new member states benefit from integration.

Politicians to each member of a long-term strategic vision and thinking mode to realize the consistent goal, common interests across Europe and in many of the specific economic, political, and social aspects of countries there are differences, but from a long-term perspective, build a stable and peaceful and prosperous Europe was all europeans Shared beliefs. With this conviction, Europe's politicians can participate in the integration process in a pragmatic manner. At the same time, we should promote the construction of European civil society and culture, establish the European public sphere consistent with the process of democratization, create a political culture that all eu citizens can participate in, and build a comprehensive and stable integration process. Only when Europe's identity is deeply embedded in People's Daily lives, close to its citizens, can it become an unquestioned political community.

The ec founder let monet predicted: Europe will build up in the crisis. Progress in the crisis is a remarkable feature of the European integration process. It is bound to be a slow process full of contradictions to integrate many sovereign states with different national characteristics and uneven economic development. What drives integration is the European identity consciousness, and what restrains integration is the national consciousness. However, we should also see that with the continuous development of integration, European culture itself is also undergoing significant changes with greater inclusiveness and more colors, which will be more conducive to the construction of cultural identity. Common interests will bring European countries closer together on the basis of a common culture. As stated in the Berlin declaration issued at the 50th anniversary celebration of the European Union on March 25, 2007, "constant and timely transformation of European political composition" is the future responsibility of the European Union. The trend of European integration is irreversible, and the history also proves that the European Community can overcome the crisis time and time again and get out of the crisis. To borrow the words of European commission President jose Manuel barroso, "I wish Europe would be better in the future".

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