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英国paper代写-The self-control mechanism of human society

2018-11-08 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The self-control mechanism of human society,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了人类社会的自我控制机制。在人类的社会生活中存在着两个系统,一个是人类的意志可以自觉地起作用的系统,可称为人为系统;另一个是不以人类的意志为转移的系统,可称为非人为系统,即社会自我控制系统。人类社会的自我控制系统的最重要的表现是人类积累剩余产品的机制。正确地处理这两个系统的关系,不但极大地影响着社会科学的发展,而且也极大地影响着社会主义的实践。

self-control mechanism,自我控制机制,英国论文代写,论文代写,paper代写

There are two fields and two systems in human social life. One is a system in which human will can act on its own initiative. The other is a system which does not depend on human will. The most important manifestation of the self-control system of human society is the mechanism of human accumulation of surplus products. Correctly handling the relationship between these two systems not only greatly affects the development of social science, but also greatly affects the practice of socialism. It is the permanent task of social science to study the relationship between these two systems, especially to reveal the human self-control system and its operational mechanism.

On the epistemology of dialectical materialism there is a famous proposition, that is, freedom is the knowledge of necessity, and later someone added that freedom is the knowledge and transformation of necessity. Although it is also accepted that man's knowledge of necessity is an infinite process and endless, there seems to be a foregone conclusion that he is fully free of what he has known. It is in this sphere that the will of man is in charge, especially in the sphere of social history. For the course of social and historical development is attended by man, composed of the ACTS of countless individual men, and the ACTS of each man are governed by his will. In this sense, since human history is made up of the complex combinations of the wills of countless people, it should be entirely subject to the will of man. But that's not the case. Historical materialism tells us: "history is created in such a way that the final result is always produced from the conflict of many individual wills, each of which, due to the special living conditions, becomes what it becomes. In this way there are innumerable interlacing forces, and there are innumerable parallelograms of forces, and from this there arises a general result, a historical event, which in turn can be regarded as the product of a force acting as a whole, involuntary and involuntary. For the wishes of any one are hindered by the wishes of any other, and the end result is that which no one has ever hoped for. So the history of the past is always carried out as a natural process, and is essentially subject to the same laws of motion. What is said here is "the force acting as a whole, unconsciously and involuntarily", like an invisible hand directing and controlling people's behaviors, planning the track of human social development and promoting the overall process of human social development. Therefore, it can be said that the development of human history is transferred by human will and not by human will. In terms of its specific process, since every historical event is the result of people's behavior, it is transferred by people's will. But in terms of the whole process and trend, it is not subject to people's will. For the general result of the interaction of human wills is neither imaginable nor known in advance. That is to say, human beings are pushing the wheel of history forward, but the general direction and track towards what goals, it is impossible for human beings to do. Humans can recognize it but they can't change it. That formed in human social life two fields, the two systems: one is the human will can consciously work system, can be called as artificial system, another is "as a whole, not consciously and independently plays a role of power", or for the system, this is the automatic control system of human society.

The automatic control system of human society is shown in many aspects of social life, but its most important and basic aspect is the accumulation mechanism of surplus products of human society. This mechanism most typically shows the objective nature of the process that does not depend on human will. The accumulation of surplus products is the foundation of human civilization. Without the accumulation of surplus products, there can be no expansion of reproduction, no differentiation of productive labor and social management, no differentiation of mental labor and physical labor, and no production and development of science, culture, education and art. And when the social production of human beings just shows the ability to produce a little surplus product from the original state without the capacity to produce surplus product, the human society automatically and spontaneously forms the mechanism to accumulate surplus product. For such a mechanism, people used to just know what was going on. For this reason, we need to conduct a brief historical survey of the formation of this mechanism, so as to understand the nature and process of the action of human automatic control system more profoundly.

We know that the material basis of human survival is the production and reproduction of various living materials. However, in the time of one or two million years since the birth of human beings, the material data produced by human beings at any time is not sufficient to meet the needs of all human members. Because human demand is a variable, it has different levels and grows with the development of human social production. So far, it has grown faster than social production. Therefore, for each previous era, even if all the material materials produced every year were consumed, they could not fully meet people's needs. If so, human reproduction will never be extended, and even simple reproduction will be difficult to maintain. Then the human society will stop forever in the most primitive, the most backward level, that is, close to the animal level, not only the material life will not progress, but also will not have the human culture, science, art, education and other causes. And if human society cannot move forward, it is possible to perish in long-term stagnation. So how can human society keep moving forward? For human beings, the only material prerequisite that can guarantee its continuous development is the accumulation of surplus products. Only when the society accumulates a certain amount of surplus products can the social reproduction expand constantly, and it is possible for some people to separate from the production and engage in culture, art, science, education and other undertakings, so that the spiritual life of human beings will also continue to develop.

How do humans accumulate surplus products? In the long years since humans emerged from the earth, the level of social productivity has been extremely low. By hunting and gathering the fruits of the wild plants, one can only sustain a half-starved life, without how much remains. In this case, there is no problem of surplus product accumulation, so it cannot provide the material premise for the development of human society, which makes human society in a long period of ignorance and barbarism. With the development of human social division of labor, especially after three times of social division of labor, human beings gradually have the ability to produce surplus products. However, the ability to produce surplus products does not directly lead to the accumulation of surplus products. In fact, the relationship between the two has gone through a very complicated process. This is because, as societies began to have the capacity to produce surplus products, human needs grew in tandem. In this case, the margin provided by the ability to produce the surplus product will be filled out quickly, and it will be difficult to show the difference between the surplus product and the necessary product. Thus, in the beginning, the accumulation of surplus products meant a reduction in the necessary level of consumption. It is impossible to require every member of society to do this voluntarily and consciously. Because it goes beyond what people realize is possible. It is impossible for anyone to recognize the need to build up surplus products for society by enduring the pain of reduced consumption, thereby promoting social progress. Even if one of the prophets told the people the truth, and obtained their consent, it would not work. For the accumulation of surplus goods, in addition to the significance of expanding reproduction and exchange, it is more important to feed a portion of those who are divorced from productive Labour, so that they can enjoy a better life than the labourer in order to engage in activities in other fields necessary for the progress of human society. It is impossible to agree on who is qualified for this role. Since it is impossible to expect people to consciously and voluntarily compress their necessary consumption for the accumulation of surplus products, it is decided that the accumulation of surplus products is initially against people's will, and therefore must be achieved by force. In this way, the society needs a control mechanism, which can not only realize the mandatory deduction of surplus products, but also enable social production to continue continuously. However, primitive clan society did not and could not have such a control mechanism. Therefore, the growth of this control mechanism must be the process of the disintegration and extinction of primitive clan society. Such a control mechanism should include at least the following contents:

First of all, to make the producer in fact accept the mandatory deduction for the remaining products, it is only possible to put the producer in a special distribution system. In this special distribution system, the distribution power of products is beyond the will of laborers. That is to say, in this system, the laborers themselves cannot determine the distribution of products, but some force outside the laborers decides the distribution of products.

Secondly, this distribution system must be part of a specific labor organization, that is, based on a specific labor organization. That is to say, only if this force can control the process of labor can control the distribution of conditions.

Thirdly, a certain labor organization is based on a certain relationship between the producer and the worker. This deterministic relationship determines the producer's control of labor organization and distribution. So the control mechanism is represented here by putting workers in this relationship through an external force.

Fourthly, the relationship between the producer and the laborer depends on the monopoly and possession of the means of production. The control mechanism is to make this kind of possession recognized by the society and form the basic order of the society.

These aspects only show the logical process of the formation of control mechanism, which is closely related to the formation of private ownership. Private ownership is the intrinsic motivation that makes it possible to deduct surplus products compulsively and make them last so as to form a certain system.

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