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Paper代写:Mr. Anson Burlingame’s Speech and Its Impossibility

2019-01-07 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇paper代写- Mr. Anson Burlingames Speech and Its Impossibility讨论了安森·伯林盖姆的演讲。1868623日,中国政府赴美代表团团长安森·伯林盖姆在纽约发表演讲。在他的演讲中,中国希望与美国谈判并建立贸易关系,并愿意向美国展示其在地缘政治影响背景下的自主性和相关性。然而遗憾的是,中国政府不可能实现这个目标。本篇paper代写51due代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

Introduction

Mr. Anson Burlingame, heading the delegation of the Chinese government to the United States, had a speech on June 23, 1868 in New York (Tim Brady. 1997). In his speech, China’s desire to negotiate and establish trade relations with the US and its willingness to demonstrate to the US its autonomy and relevance in the context of geopolitical influence are addressed. However, what is a pity to say is that it turned out that it is impossible for the Chinese government to achieve the goals that Burlingame passionately described in his speech and this impossibility can be illustrated via the existence of ancient prejudice of the U.S. toward China and the assumption of superiority of the U.S., the frequent outbreak of war of China with other countries in the world as well as the signing of a series of unequal treaties of China due to failure in the wars.

Mr. Anson Burlingame’s Speech and Its Impossibility

First and foremost comes that the impossibility of the Chinese government to achieve the goals that Burlingame passionately described in his speech lies in the existence of ancient prejudice of the U.S. toward China and the assumption of superiority of the U.S.. The existence of ancient prejudice of the U.S. toward China and the assumption of superiority of the U.S. can be easily predicted from the expressions in Burlingame’s speech that “She asks you to forget your ancient prejudices, to abandon your assumptions of superiority” (Burlingame. 1868), which indicates that it is hard for China to get itself rid of the ancient prejudice within a short time under the influence of America’s assumption of its superiority. To put it more specifically, America is the only superpower all over the world in the past and it has won the respect from other countries. Accordingly, America has gained a sense of superiority and it assumes that it is superior to other countries in one way or another. There is no doubt that America will as well hold that it is superior to China. In the opposite, China is always put at an unfair disadvantage when dealing with the world powers no matter in the verbal struggle or resorting to violence so that it is humiliated and impaired all the time. And that is right why the modern history of China is called the history of imperialist aggression against China, which can well indicate that there is a big gap between America and China in the comprehensive strength internationally (Stanton Jue. 2011). Based on this, China may be prejudiced by other countries in the world and they may not respect China at all because they deem that China can be easily bullied by. Consequently, a fair knowledge can be obtained that America won’t take China seriously and it may be unwilling to trade with China. Or maybe it can be put in another way that America can choose to trade or have international relationships with other countries that have stronger comprehensive strength.

Moreover, the frequent outbreak of war of China with other countries in the world out of their interference in China’s internal affairs can be another element to interpret the impossibility of the Chinese government to achieve the goals that Burlingame passionately described in his speech. In Burlingame’s speech, he states that “She wishes no war; she asks of you not to interfere in her internal affairs” (Burlingame. 1868), from which China’s desire for peace can be readily predicted. But the motivation to protect the neutrality of its waters and the integrity of its territory makes China have no choice but to involve itself in the war. It is known to us that war will cause great harm and heavy losses to both people’s lives and property. In the meantime, the parties that are involved in the war will undoubtedly spend a lot for fighting, resulting in great property loss and high mortality rate. What is a pity to say is that some people that can survive in the battlefield may become the homeless ones and it is hard for them to make a living in the postwar economic condition. Thus it can be easily imagined that China’s economic and technological strength will be largely weakened out of its participating in subsequent wars. The wars that China has been engaged in mainly include the below ones: the First Opium War from June 1840 to August 1842, the Taiping Movement from 1851 to 1864, the Second Opium War from October 1856 to October 1860 and so on. Just take the Second Opium War as an example, the Old Summer Palace (Yuanming Yuan), along with several other imperial gardens in Beijing, was pillaged and burned by British and French troops in 1860 during the Second Opium War. According to this, it can be found that China has really experienced great loss in those wars as have blocked its later development to a certain degree. But what is different to America is that its scientific and technological strength have not been destroyed for even a little, contributing to its competence to develop fast. Thus the relationship between China and America can not be completely equal in trade in the case of comparative strength.

Last but not the least comes that the signing of a series of unequal treaties of China due to failure in the wars can be used to explain the impossibility of the Chinese government to achieve the goals that Burlingame passionately described in his speech. Burlingame has claimed that “She asks you to give to those treaties which were made under the pressure of war, a generous and Christian construction” (Burlingame. 1868) in his speech, which shows that China has signed plenty of unequal treaties with other countries in the world “under the pressure of war”. Here “under the pressure of war” means that China is forced to sign those unequal treaties because of its being defeated by other countries in the wars. The aforementioned unequal treaties signed by China can be primarily listed as the below ones: the Treaty of Nanking, the Treaty of Humen, the Treaty of Wanghia, the Treaty of Whampoa, the Treaty of Tientsin, the Convention of Peking, etc. For instance, the signing of the Treaty of Nanking marks the beginning of a series of unequal treaties imposed by the Western powers upon China, after which China began to become a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society. At that time, poverty, social unrest and foreign oppression prevailed across the country. Also, the signing of the Treaty of Wanghia with the U.S. deepens China’s degree of being semi-colonial and semi-feudal. Due to the Treaty of Wanghia, the U.S. could get privileges in China, such as the treaty ports, extraterritoriality and so on. The U.S. has the opportunity to conquer China and enjoy privileges in China on various aspects and it is obvious that it won’t care about trading equally with China. Luckily, Burlingame’s speech has promoted the signing of the Burlingame Treaty as is seen as the first equal treaty in modern Chinese history (Don M. Tow. 2010). The signing of the Burlingame Treaty is really a good start for China, but there is much for China to do to increase its international status.

Conclusion

To sum up, a natural conclusion can be easily drawn that it is impossible for the Chinese government to achieve the goals that Burlingame passionately described in his speech when taking the below aspects into consideration: the existence of ancient prejudice of the U.S. toward China and the assumption of superiority of the U.S., the frequent outbreak of war of China with other countries in the world together with the signing of a series of unequal treaties of China due to failure in the wars. Also, it is right due to the aforementioned aspects that suggest that there is still a long way to go for China to really win justice and respect from the United States. It is hoped that the principles and policies of eternal justice can really come true in the near future so that China can actually become one country that is with high comprehensive strength globally.

Works Cited

Brady, Tim. Anson Burlingame: Diplomat, Orator. Journal of Aviation/ Aerospace Education & Research. Winter 1997. 7(2).

Burlingame’s Speech in New York. Banquet to His Excellency Anson Burlingame and His Associates of the Chinese Embassy 1868. New York: Sun Book and Job Print. House, 1868.

Don M. Tow. A Most Unique Diplomat: Anson Burlingame. December 2010. Online available from: http://www.dontow.com/2010/12/a-most-unique-diplomat-anson-burlingame/.

Jue, Stanton. Anson Burlingame, an American Diploma. September 2011. Online available from: http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/item/2011/0912/ca/jue_burlingame.html.

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