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英国Paper代写:Analysis of fisheries policy in terms of overfishing in China

2019-01-08 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Analysis of fisheries policy in terms of overfishing in China,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了过度捕捞的问题。过度捕捞是指人类在海洋区域进行捕捞活动,导致某一鱼群数量下降,无法与养殖数量的增加相匹配,这种活动的结果导致生态平衡破坏和生态系统退化。世界各地对海鲜的需求和海鲜产业的丰厚利润以及不完善的渔业政策都纵容了世界各地的过度捕捞活动。

overfishing,过度捕捞,论文代写,essay代写,paper代写

1. Introduction

1.1 Stats on overfishing globally

Overfishing means activities from human beings for fishing in ocean area causing a decline of a certain fish school, which cannot match its increase of breeding. The consequence of this activity leads to broken ecological balance and ecosystem degradation (SA Murawski, 2000). The appetite for seafood from all over the world and fat profit in seafood industry as well as incomplete fisheries policy indulge overfishing activity around the world (J Kurien, 1990).

Activities of overfishing have been further intensified over the world. In 2014, the total quantity consumed for good of aquaculture has surpassed the quantity of wild fishing in the world for the first time and the quantity of aquaculture has increased constantly from 7% in aquatic product to more than 45% in 2014. Resultant from it, the level of sustainable of fishery resources has presented a obvious decline trend from 90% in 1974 to 68.6% in 2013 and by the time of 2013, among all the wild fishery resources in the world, unsustainable fishing activities have occupied of 31.4% (FAO, 2010).

1.2 Stats on specifically overfishing in China

The situation of overfishing is extremely rigorous in China. The statistic from FAO (food and agriculture organization of the united nations) points out that China is the top country with high quantity of output of marine fishing in the world with yield of fishing of 1481000 tons and proportion 18% in the world’s output in this field. Scholars (Y Ji and J Yu, 2012)have indicated that fishery resources in china has stepped into the serious degenerating stage and with the continue overfishing activities, this status will move on, which has causes the evil consequence of low quality of seafood product, contaminative marine environment and ecological degradation in ocean.

1,3 The “big name” players

As one of the most historical industry for human beings, there are lots of giants in aquaculture industry and almost every countries have its own representatives. In Norway, the most impressive one is which is the most famous fishery company in Norway and the top three company in field of salmon product. As for America, Shrimp Improvement Systems - Hawaii LLC is famous for providing shrimp. In China, aquatic product of China is the model in this field and obviously, this company is state-owned enterprise.

2. Significant

Chinese government has discovered the serious situation of overfishing and manifest its emphasis in marine resources and come up with many policies to support its determination of protecting marine resources and making good use of them in a sustainable way. First, the decision to boost the policy of the Belt and Road Initiatives and take part in protecting marine resources deeply has been listed into the 13th Five-Year Plan (

FU Shou-Ji and WZ Liu, 2016). Besides, Ministry of Agriculture has put forward policy to control marine fish boats, manage the quantity of marine resources and establish the instrument of Summer Moratorium of Marine Fishing (Peng Pan and Weidong Li, 2016).

This paper is aiming to analyze the situation of overfishing in China and come up with suggestion of sustainable development in fishery industry in China for Chinese government and enterprises.

3 Analyze current situation on overfishing in China

The influence from fishing activity on marine resources especially the fishery resources can be divided into two parts: the quantity and quality of fishing equipment and quantity of fisherman.

3.1 Chang of fisher

As we can see from below chart (Yi, Tang, Weihong, zou and Zhenming, Hu, 2009), the quality of fisher in China is improved constantly in terms of rate of work, which means the input for fishing is increased. The gross power for each fishers has increased 134.06% during the period of 1987 to 2005. However, The growth rate for rate of work presents a decline trend and it has kept a sustainable level after 1997.

As for the quantity of fishers, it increases from 200000 in 1987 to 300000 in 2001 and then level off. Similar to the qualify of fishers, the number of fishers rockets in 1997 and then kept a stable level.

3.2 Quantity of fisherman

In general, the change for quantify of fisherman in China synchronize with the quantity and quality of fisher. The difference between them (fisherman and fisher) may be the trend after 1999. Unlike keeping a stable level as fisher in terms of quantity, the number of fisherman starts to decrease after the peak of about 11500000 in 1991.

3.3 Amount of fishing

The amount of fishing during the period of 1987 to 2006 appears fluctuation. The total amount of output of 17 main fish is increasing from 1987 to 1999. And then the negative growth arises. But after 2000, it has kept a stable level (Yi, Tang, Weihong, zou and Zhenming, Hu, 2009).

3.4 Brief summary

From the data above, the improving quality for fisher and increasing quantity for fisher and fisherman indicates that the total level for the ability to fish in China has strengthened and the fierce competition has led to the decline of fishery resources and weeded out a part of fisherman with low skills of fishing. Besides, the situation mention above points out that the marine policy named double control, which controls the quantity and total rate of work for fishers cannot implemented seriously. The quantity and rate of work for fishers still have a increasing trend.

4. Current policies already in place in China that regulate the fishing industry

4.1 Summer Moratorium of Marine Fishing

To protect the fishery resources in Chinese marine area and create proper environment for fish to breed and grow, Chinese government has put forward the instrument of Summer Moratorium of Marine Fishing since 1995, which sets up the fishing off season during the period of May to September (YZ Jiang, JH Cheng and SF Li). Since the policy is implemented, the control area has been broaden and it reaches the largest area in 2017 (Ministry of Agriculture, 2017).

4.1.1 Benefits from Summer Moratorium of Marine Fishing

Summer Moratorium of Marine Fishing is the policy covering the largest area, influencing the most aspects of fishers and fisherman with the most difficult tasks for protecting the fishery resources in China. The successful implementation of that policy in a long time owes excellent management from relevant government departments and cooperation from fisherman. In general, it brings benefits for environment, economy and public.

In term of environment benefits, Summer Moratorium of Marine Fishing hinders the trend of deterioration of marine ecosystem and decline of marine fishery resources. Research has discovers that implementing the policy in the East China Sea can increase 89% of average quantity of resource and 29% of annual output of of hairtail. Besides, due to the reduction of destruction from fishing tools, Marine ecosystem for marine organism living has been improved (Minghui Liu, Fan Li, Zhong tu, Xiao lu and Tianwei Dong, 2016).

As for economy, the policy in some way can improve efficiency and benefit for fishery production, which reflects in terms of output increasing and cost decreasing. The average output of main fish like hairtail, croaker and silvery pomfret is 720 thousand tons in period of 2005 to 2013, which increases 46.5%, 420% and 278.6% respectively compared with 1995. Because of fishing off season, the consumption of diesel and other fishing consumables is lessened. It is estimated the policy can save cost 3 to 5 billion yuan.

In regard to public, the policy has strengthen the public conscious of protecting marine resources and environment as well as influence in international community. Nowadays, fisherman in china asks for a longer time for Summer Moratorium of Marine Fishing and perfecting the management for the policy (Yusong Liu and Sheng Lei, 2016).

4.1.2 Limitation of Summer Moratorium of Marine Fishing

The benefits from Summer Moratorium of Marine Fishing mainly come into effect in a short time, but in a long run, it fails to change the trend of deterioration of marine fishery resources. The quality of fish is still unsatisfactory. Some kinds of fish have lost economic value and several fish’s size has shrink obviously. Additionally, the achievement from each season of Summer Moratorium of Marine Fishing cannot be superposed. After the fishery off season, the input of fishing will cover the fruit from moratorium and even surpass it (Gui Wang and Hanxiang Xu, 2009).

4.2 Total Allowable Catch (TAC)

The trend for fishery resources management is to quantize the fish catches and almost all the developed countries in the world have taken Total Allowable Catch (TAC) in terms of management of fishery resources. Since 2000, Fisheries Law in China has insisted to set up Total Allowable Catch system and authorize department of fishes to formulate the specific quantity for fishing in marine area and to implement this policy by local government (Yi Tang and Jianye Tang, 2003).

2.1 Benefits from TAC

At present, dilemma in fishery production for Chinese government is to find a balance among fishery resources overdevelopment and exhaustion of parts of fishery resources as well as overplus of fishing labor. Thus, the policy TAC is meaningful for resources situation in China and problem of employment

4.2.2 Limitation of TAC

TAC is available based on the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) and elements of society and economy. Thus, the accurate TAC number is difficult to confirm, which needs statistic of at least 10 years of fish catch and the elements of economy and society is fuzzy in some extent.

Secondly. The overfishing may appear on other kinds of fish, which is not protected in TAC. Because TAC has limited the input in some kinds of fish and once exceed standard, fishing activity will be stopped (Yongtong Mu and Linna Ma, 2005). Thus, redundant resources especially the labor will shift to other unlimited fish. Obviously, TAC cannot cover all the fishery resources or it is too expensive for TAC to cover all kinds of fish.

Thirdly, in principle, the control for marine fishery resources in China has the feature of command and control (Zhiyi Zhang and Chunlan Tan, 2015. This feature of TAC weakens the positive protection of fisherman for fishery resources and strengthens the conscious of fisherman for competition in fishing and eluding control from government, which leads to the result all the participators want to occupy a lager share in the limited cake.

Last but not least, in a country with large marine area and numerous fisherman, implementing TAC is difficult. For example, although double control (control the quantity of fisher and rate of work for fisher) has been put forward, in fact, both indicators still increase and strength for fishing is enhanced because this control is formulated by center government and assigned to local government but not for specific fisherman. Besides, there is also no limitation for the fisherman manufacturer (Zhantao Han and Shujin Liu, 2001).

4.3 Stakeholders analysis

4.3.1 Fisherman and company

Fisherman and fishing company is the basic production unit pursuing the goal of benefit maximization. In TAC and Summer Moratorium of Marine Fishing, because property right of fishery resources is state-owned with externalities and exclusiveness, the fishing activity from a certain fisherman must reduce the benefit gotten from other fisherman in the same marine area. Thus, every fisherman spends their efforts to increase yield and even fishing in a illegal way. Besides, this policy can also encourage short-sighted behaviors and in fact create conditions for illegal fishing when executing regulations, which leads to a serious negative externality.

4.3.2 Center government

In the process of management of marine fishery resources, center government bear the responsibility to formulate relevant regulation and law and supervise the implementation by local government. In terms of pursuing benefits, the goal for center government is multiple. It not only pays attention to the economy development for domestic economy, but also is expected to protect the living standard for public and social stability. What’s more, center government is also called for protection and maintenance for sustainable marine fishery resources and ecosystem .

4.3.3 Local government

As for local government, although in terms of protection of marine fishery resources, local and center government are in an alignment, the KPI for local government is to boost local economy and social benefit. Because official term for certain local officer is short and the benefit from carrying out policy seriously to gain benefits from marine fishery resources needs a long time to achieve, the local government will weigh pros and cons between the policy and short-term benefit in its tenure, which creates space for illegal fishing.

4.3.3 public

The benefit and cost for public is indirect. The policy implement can create a clean environment and sustainable resources in theory, but it is far from public and it needs a long time to verify it. However, the policy establishment and implementation needs efforts and resources to achieve, which is sponsored by tax form public.

5. For a new policy

5.1 Adjust department function and Improve law and regulation of fishery

Supervision of fishery resources in China obeys the principle of leading by center government and managing by local government. However, in fact, this principle is not practiced virtually leading to the situation of lack of center government direction and regional protectionism.Thus, first of all, the adjustment and establishment for government department should be put forward and strip management function from province, municipality directly under the center government and autonomous region government and broaden authority management for minister of fishery, which can eliminate regional protectionism (LIU Rui yu and J Y LIU, 2004). Besides, based on the TAC and actual management condition, put forward a supervision mode of from ministry of fishery to supervision administration in three marine area to specific local government in coastal area. As for the basic management unit, the power of appointment and removal of personnel can be removed but the right to supervise and punish the staff who violate the regulation should be complete.

Secondly, it is important to forbid the shift of quota of fisher tool among the whole country. Or at least, guarantee the quota to stay in one province. Thirdly, government should set up fund for compensation of the scrap fisher and make the process clear, which can help to achieve the goal of double control of the quantity of fisher and rate or work for each fisher.At last, living security system is expected to keep pace with because a part of fisherman will lose its job in this condition and if there is no support from government, their living problem can lead to social security problem.

Thirdly, it is suggested to evaluate the fishery resources timely and update the latest data to manage TAC. Based on the result of fishery resources evaluation, the marine area can be divided into different parts to manage and supervise. The level of area can be decided by the resources condition and environment aspect (EK Pikitch, C Santora, EA Babcock, A Bakun and R Bonfil, 2004). The serious area should be protected from too many fisherman and powerful fisher. However, this area should not be invariable and it is expected to adjust entrance level based on seasonal resources report.

5.2 Strengthen management and supervision for fisher and tool

Some regulation for TAC ought to set up. First, introduce policy for managing fisherman to clear who can be a fisherman with the right to fishing and bear relevant obligation to protect marine resources. The fisherman can be divided into different level so that the higher level fisherman can use the higher-power fisher but bear more obligation. The traditional fisherman should be taken care of because in some extent they are the vulnerable groups in this case (S Wang, X Liu, Q Dai, LI Xue Jie and Qingdao, 2003). Some job training and education can be free to them and provide them with a certain level of using fisher. Supporting measure for certain rate of work of fisher is expected to carry out, which clears how to apply quota of power fisher and its audit program .

Besides, a system to evaluate the fisherman’s fishing activity should be set up to record and evaluate its fishing behavior. This system can be an integrating system that someone can enhance its fishing level by obeying the relevant regulation to get enough integration. However, if someone is against the law and regulation, its fishing level will be down or even cancel.

Additionally, a system to classify and manage different level of fisher can be establish to support the TAC. This system should consider of different steps for a fisher of approving building, manufacturing, repairing, refreshing and transforming, etc. This policy mainly aims to normalize the fisher manufacturer and reduce and even put an end to three-no-enterprises. Last but not least, the inspection for fishing tools especially the fishing net should be timely and serious to protect fry. Different marine area should be with different fishing tool limitation.

5.3 Encourage development of aquaculture

To decline the intensity of marine fishing and achieve aquaculture updating, local government and its department officer should change perception and perform government functions to convert the way of subsidy for fishing. Follow the law of market economy to change fishery industry positively and improve the administration measures to balance the intensity of marine fishing and fishery resources. Besides, industry nurturing agriculture should not be in terms of increasing the ability of fishing, but to support the fishery industry updating (T An, J Bian and G Lu, 2007).

Government can support leading enterprise of aquaculture to add value for the fishing product and decline primary fishing industry step by step. By expanding the scale of production and introducing advanced technology and machine to develop fishery processing enterprises, which can create more economic value and more job opportunity appealing to the individual fisherman. (E Saillant, A Bardon, A Apeitos, M Lee and R Blaylock, 2014) Besides, to go forward in the aquaculture industry chain, it is necessary to implement the brand strategy to set up famous brand awareness so as to boost sales and open up more channels.

5.4 increase consciousness of protecting marine resources for public

As public property in China, the marine resources protection should call for the participation from public instead of only depending on government’s control and management. Publicity department ought to increase the consciousness of protecting marine resources for public and normalize the fishing production activities. In China, most fisherman with low education level and is lack of specialized fishing skills, so they cannot realize to protect spawn and the regulation pattern of fish breeding, which leads to overfishing and marine resources exhaustion. Based on above condition, some training courses and education aiming to enhance fisherman’s basic marine knowledge and fishing skills should be put forward regularly. And entrance test to fisherman can be held by local fisheries department to guarantee the fisherman’s overall quality. The one who fail the entrance test cannot get the fishing license and the license should not be permanent, which can be renewed by four years a time.

6. Compare marine fishery management system in China with that in Norway

6.1 Summary of marine fishery management system in China

The marine fishery management in China can be divided into three parts: fishing license system, Total allowable catch system and closed fishing system. For the first one, China has carried out this system since 1979 and has implemented it for the whole country since 1986 with the coming out of fisheries law. However, this policy cannot turn around the trend of marine fishery resources exhaustion and the conflict between resource exploitation and fishery management has become fiercer and fiercer. To remit this conflict, the new fishery law in 2017 has a more detailed stipulation about job type, fishing area, fishing time and permissive tools. This system has been set up in China for 20 years and given contribution to boost the fishery industry development and increase fisherman’s income. But, it still cannot help to improve marine ecosystem and resources (J Zhang, LI Xun and Y Tang, 2015).

The limitation for this system is that there is no clear stipulation for the total yield of each fisher. Fisherman can evade this system by increasing fishing time, improving fishing technology and tools and other measures to enhance fishing quantity (JY Tang, JG Zhang and TW Zhao, 2009). Because of management deficiency and special environment, the fishing license system is not implemented seriously. Due to regional protectionism, numerous fisherman enter into marine fishing without permission (Y Han, Y Zhang and H Sun, 2015).

In conclusion, the most terrible defect for fishing license is to generate the negative incentive for fisherman and the administrator of fishery resources limits the application of new technology in order to implement the most effective control, which leads to the efficiency of the whole fishery industry.

As for the TAC and closed fishing system (Summer Moratorium of Marine Fishing), it is not necessary to go into details here.

6.2 Summary of marine fishery management system in Norway

6.2.1 General situation of Norway

Norway with 4.5 million population can rank top 10 county in the world with annual fishery yield of more than 2 million tons. The main reason for this achievement is the fact that Norway can make good use of its abundant fishery resources, advanced automatic equipment and completed and effective fishery management system, which support Norway to gain benefits from marine resources in a stable and sustainable way.

6.2.2 The fishery administrative system in Norway

The administrative system in Norway can be divided into two sections: department of fisheries and coastguard.

Norway is the earliest country in the world to set up department of fisheries, which is responsible for fishing, aquaculture, fishery resources protection, coastal security, marine research, marine product quality control and fishery law legislation.

As for the coastguard, it is established in 1977 and it is attached to the ministry of national defense. The main duty for it is to daily patrol, supervise the implementation of fishery regulation and provide marine service and salvage for fisherman. The jurisdiction for coastguard is more than 1 million km2, which is equal to double land area of Norway.

6.2.3 fishery management system in Norway

In terms of fishery management system in Norway, some are similar to that in China like fishing license system and TAC. However, Norway’s sea area is in the Arctic Ocean and the marine fishery resources is shared by Russia, Iceland and other countries. So, a part of fishery management is to deal with this situation and the foreign fisher. Besides, The implementation of TAC system should also negotiate with relevant countries.

The most distinguished marine fishery management system is the Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQs) in Norway. Though Norway is not the one implement this system earliest, it achieve great achievement in terms of resources protection and guidance of competition. Yifeng Zhang (2007) has demonstrated the marine fishery resources in Norway especially the gadus can be rational utilized in a sustainable way with the combination of TAC and ITQs.

6.3 Comparison of fishery management system between Norway and China in terms of TAC and ITQs

6.3.1 Common system - TAC

The establishment of ITQs system is based on the TAC. The basic connotation of ITQs is to segment TAC into smaller units and then assign them to individuals, fishers, companies, fishery communities or other organizations (D Squires, H Campbell, S Cunningham, C Dewees and RQ Grafton, 1998). The core concept of ITQs it the feature of transferable.

However, this system is set up steps by steps and it begins from TAC. Similar to China, some marine fishery resources have began to be exhausted in 1960s. Thus, some measures should be put forward to improve this situation. With detection technology for fishery resources (ICES) and social economy evaluation, Norway establish the TAC system, whose basic core is similar to that in China. But TAC system in Norway should also consider international factors. Norway has to come to agreement with Russia in terms of TAC (P Sandberg and I Røttingen, 1998). So, the implementation of TAC system in Norway encounters more resistances than that in China. But, different with China, the goal of TAC at that time excludes ecosystem protection. Fishing ground in Norway almost opens every time and closes for several weeks, which nearly cannot come into effect in terms of ecosystem protection, but successfully develops the consciousness of fishing quota for public. People agree to suggestion of fishing under the limitation, which brings benefits to the establishment of ITQs.

6.3.2 System improvement based on TAC - ITQs and SQ

Similar to almost all countries with TAC, TAC system just limits the annual quantity for a certain fish group but does not change the feature of competitive fishing, which leads to the exhaustion of fishery resources. With the efforts of government and association of fisheries, the IVQ came out. IVQ is one of ITQS, through which government assigns specific quota to a certain fisher (R Hannesson, 2013). Once the quota is full, that fisher cannot continue fishing in that year. But he cannot buys quota from other fisherman.

Further on ITQs, Structural Quota (SQ) is introduced, which aims at improvement of over-investment led by ITQs. Different from ITQs, SQ stops the transaction between different type of fisher. Secondly, the quota assignment will not depend on the size of fisher and each quota is fixed, which means big fisher and small fisher with a certain quota can fishing with the same quantity. Thirdly, more kinds of fish is introduced into SQ instead of only gadus (Eva MunkMadsen, 2008).

6.3.3 Discussion of ITQs

Fishery Law in China has indicated that Chinese fishing implement the Qututa Management System, but there is still no specific stipulation of quota. Combination of fishing license and TAC system has little influence on the ecosystem protection. In China, the fishery management system is somewhat more like IQs, which different from ITQs without the feature of transaction.

Compared with IQs, ITQs can lead to a greater economic benefit because the transaction will convey the quota to the fisherman who has the most effective and efficient fishing skills with the time goes by. Thus, it minimizes the fishing cost and maximize the rent of fishing resources. Besides, ITQs can also help to decline the level of abandon of fishery resources and lying about catch. But ITQs may lead to smaller scale of fleet, which will increase the unemployment rate in fishing field and trigger the query of social equity (M Makino, 2009).

6.3.3.1 implementation condition of ITQs

Examples from all over the world have indicate that ITQs system can deal with lots of fishery problem in terms of society, economy and biology. Yongtong Mu (2009) argues that if a country can fulfill following condition, it can more likely implement ITQs.

Firstly, the government is confident to confirm the TAC. Chinese government has carried out TAC system for more than 20 years and with the improving of evaluation technology of marine fishery, this condition is fulfilled. Secondly, the goal of fishery resources management is to enhance the economic efficiency and reduce the number of employee in fishing field. However, Chinese government in this part is eager to solve the environment and ecosystem problem. Thirdly, support from fisherman and public. It is no doubt that public and fisherman in China both support to limit the exploitation of marine resources and hope to find a more effective and efficient way to take advantage of marine resources. Fourthly, it is easy to administrate and supervise the fishing activity. Considering of the large marine area in China, this condition is hard to achieve and in fact the supervision of fishing activity is usually denounced. At last, the data of fishery resources is sufficient. China government has payed attention to the fishery management, so, the database and research will follow up.

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