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英国Paper代写:Chinese Food and Agriculture

2019-02-11 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Chinese Food and Agriculture: The Past, Present and Future,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了中国的粮食与农业。作为世界上人口最多的国家,中国的饮食文化是由复杂的元素组成的,因为中国的地理规模很大。中国的饮食有着几千年的文明历史,在历史的长河中,农业的变化塑造了中国饮食。随着农业技术的发展,这种影响比历史上发生得更快。在过去,中国的食物只由国内的农业和社会因素决定。然而,随着国外饮食文化和农业技术的影响越来越大,中国的饮食也在以各种各样的方式改变着。

Chinese Food,Agriculture,论文代写,essay代写,paper代写

1. Introduction

It is common in the modern economy studies to evaluate the living standards of a country of region based on the average amount of food production in it. However, such an evaluation is only dependent on the quantitative measures of food without looking into the qualitative parameters, which are the specific agricultural items. In addition to the amount, the diversity is also important in the study of diet. The entrance of mankind into the agrarian society has made agricultural society undertake almost the entirety of food consumed by humans. Gradually, the food obtained from hunting and collecting was becoming less and less important for the diet of human. From the very beginning, humans were only unconscious in the development of the preliminary agricultural activities. Such activities expanded in scale and significantly increased their chances of survival (Wang, 26). Some argue that humans are not biologically, or genetically fit for such kind of laboring, which enslaved the entire mankind for thousands of years. However, it is undeniable that it is only through agriculture that humans are able to develop into the dominant status on earth they have today. Without agriculture, the human civilization would be entirely different, and very likely of a much smaller scale. Built on the minor modifications of the mother nature, humans are able to develop more and more agricultural technologies that overcame the natural obstacles.

It is then logical to summarize that agriculture is fundamental for the development of food culture. However, such a close relationship is usually overlooked by the majority. When people talk about a certain type of food, they usually direct the topic into the sociology and cultural aspects. However, agriculture and food are like the upstream and downstream of the same river, with the latter completely dependent on the former. As the world’s most populated country, China has a food culture that is composed of complex elements due to the large geological scale of the country. With a civilization of thousands of years, the Chinese food has been shaped by the changing agriculture in the course of history. With the development of agricultural technologies, such influences are happening much faster than in history. In the past, Chinese food was only determined by the agricultural and societal factors within the country. However, with the increased influence of foreign food culture and agricultural technologies, Chinese food has also been transformed and diversified in various ways. This paper will try to analyze the relationship between Chinese food and agriculture by examining the influence of addition and reduction of crops and livestock, following the historical path. In addition, the reduced influence of the seasonal and weather factors in the modern Chinese agriculture is also observed. Finally, from the historical and archaeological perspectives, suggestions for the future development of Chinese food and agriculture are made.

2. Agriculture and Food in Ancient China

There are numerous ways of influence of traditional Chinese agriculture on Chinese food. Firstly, the principal Chinese food has not always been rice. In the north of China, the oldest type of crops for principal food was millet. In the southern parts, however, rice was more dominant for thousands of years in ancient China. In addition to the major two crops, there are numerous variations of the species, depending on the geological conditions of the area of production. All types of principal crops can be divided into two subcategories, waxy and non-waxy ones. Although both types are edible, only the waxy types are used in wine production (Hsu, 6). Since the use of wine was commonly related to sacrifices for heaven or ancestor worships, the agricultural conditions of ancient were also recorded and discovered by archaeologists. The unit production of millet was too low for the growing population, and was soon replaced by durra and continues to be the major crop product in the middle provinces of China nowadays. Other than millet, durra and rice, wheat and soybeans were also becoming more popular in the Chinese diet. Initially, the two crops were not widely planted, for the tough texture of it and difficulty in processing. The invention of the stone mill changed the situation, which enabled Chinese people to process the wheat grains and the soybean with the help of livestock (Shurtleff & Aoyagi, 87). The invention open an entirely new page in Chinese food, with the development of buns, noodles, pancakes, dumplings, soymilk and tofu originated from it. After the Han Dynasty, wheat became as important and durra and rice in Chinese food, and inspired the addition of a great variety of food into the Chinese diet.

Although the agricultural production of durra, rice, wheat and soybeans, aided by stone mills, had formed the principal framework of Chinese food. The rest of the food contents still needed filling. One solution to the problem, as mentioned above, was by inventing new ways to cook and process food, bringing difference flavors to it. For example, by grinding the wheat into flour, which is extremely versatile, people were able to make different food items. With the steaming of the doughs, buns and filled buns were created. Boiling the wheat in soup lead to the invention of noodles. Heating the flattened doughs directly on the pans, pancakes and pies were created. The Chinese food also contains many items made from waxy crops, such as rice and wheat. One of the most famous and popular is the traditional Chinese rice pudding, called “ZongZi” in Chinese. It is made by wrapping the waxy rice into long leaves with other ingredients into a triangular shape, and boiling it. The Chinese people has established the habit of eating it for thousands of years, in celebration of the great poet and patriot Qu Yuan. Vegetables such as yam were initially the principal ingredient in Chinese food, before they were replaced by rice and wheat. With a diminished status, they appeared on the dining tables more as flavorful dishes. After the Han Dynasty, the increased communications with the Middle Asian countries and the establishment of the Silk Road has brought new agricultural species into ancient China. During the Tan Dynasty, horse beans, peas, sesames, coles, carrots and water melons were introduced from Middle Asia to China (Wumuer, et al, 2886). Later in the Ming Dynasty, the exploration of the Southeast Asia seaways brought corns, peanuts, potatoes, pumpkins and tomatoes were added to Chinese food from South America indirectly. These food items not only reshaped the Chinese food to its modern form, but also helped the development of stockbreeding.

The Chinese people is known for raising livestock since the Neolithic. Pigs were among the most popular, followed by cows, dogs, sheep, chickens and horses. Due to the increased demand of wars, horses were no longer considers a major component in agriculture, and were mainly raised by armies. The dominant number of pigs raised was largely dependent on the crop productions that fed the pigs. The changing climate in China has made it difficult for the husbandry on the grasslands, which secured the place of pigs as the number one livestock in China. Such a path of development has directly shaped the pork orientated Chinese food people eat today, which is different from the cow-dominated western husbandry. In the year of 2000, the pork production in China was about 50% of the world’s entire production. Meanwhile, China was also a major beef producer in the world, accounting for around 15% of the world’s total productions (Oh & Whitley, 1632). With the forces of globalization, the Chinese people are beginning to eat more beef, and the Americans more pork. However, pork still remains the top source of protein in Chinese food, which is the result of thousands of years of agricultural and cultural development. Within the country, the northern provinces consume more beef and lamb than the southern areas, which further confirms the huge influence of the agricultural factor in shaping the Chinese food, since most of the beef and lamb productions are in the north. Combining the framework of rice and wheat, waxy or not, the vegetables that were added during the course of history, and the major types of protein consumed, a general picture of the Chinese food is more clearly seen.

3. Modern Chinese Agriculture and Food

The agricultural sector of China is in the phase of transition from traditional to modern entering the modern age. More dramatic changes in Chinese agriculture are experienced compare to the more gradual changes in history, which plays an important role in shaping the modern Chinese diet. Firstly, the production-driven modern agriculture has led to the disappearance of many agricultural products that are not productive enough. Taking rice for example: in the past, the ancient Chinese took the idea of variation in food very seriously, believing that eating diversely is equal to eating healthily. Such a point also makes a lot of sense according to the modern studies in nutriology. However, China was on the path to pursuit more unit area production of rice since the 1950s, due to the pressure created by the large demands (Huang, et al., 698). New species of rice were produced through hybrid, and the ones of low production yield and vermin resistance were eliminated for good. There were historical recordings from the Qing Dynasty on the subtle differences in tastes of different rice species, which can never be reproduced with the unified production of rice nowadays. All the farmers wanna minimize the loss and maximize revenue from their land, thus the new hybrids became their first choices. Although at a cost of agricultural species variety, it is indeed a remarkable accomplishment for China to have been able to feed the world’s largest population, which may not have been possible without the efforts made in hybrids and agricultural unification. The same has happened for vegetables and livestock.

The traditional diet of Chinese is highly dependent on rice or wheat with a lack of protein intake. Chickens and ducks only have minor influences in solving the problems, and raising cows and sheep requires large areas of grasslands and water. Raising pigs not only require little environmental input, but also produces natural fertilizers to the crops, which made it the first choice for the majority of the Chinese farmers. In the past, the fat in the pork is a valuable source of nutrition for most of the people. However, the high fat content in pork has become the biggest disadvantage of the food item in the modern society, which is the cause for obesity and related diseases. These disadvantages have not restrained the love for pork of the Chinese people. Due to the different local cultures, agricultural statuses and geological limitations, it is no exaggeration to state that there are countless dishes that are made from pork in Chinses food. In the past, people used to cook with pork fat, which made the dishes flavorful and desirable. Pork fat has been replaced by most of the Chinses households nowadays with vegetable or soya oils, and is only used in some restaurants. Eating pork has become the collective memory of generations of Chinese people, with different favorite dishes made by the chefs of the families. In addition to cooking methods, the tradition of the Chinese to utilize all parts of the pig in cooking is also noted. Such a tradition is inherited in the modern days as well. although people of the ancient times only did this not to waste the valuable ingredient, utilization of pork feet, livers, ears etc. has created new textures and flavors distinct from the main parts.

With the introduction of new agricultural technologies, the season and weather factors have become less and less important in shaping the Chinese diet. In the ancient times, seasons were the key to successful agriculture. The Chinese have developed a system of 24 divisions of a solar year in the traditional Chinese calendar to predict season changes and adjust the agricultural activities accordingly. With more understandings of the nature of opportunities that are crucial for agriculture, technologies are developed to artificially create the conditions of the optimal and reduce the influence of nature. For example, green houses, lighting adjustments, temperature accumulations, improved transportation are developed and introduced, so that the Chinese agriculture became more controlled. With such agricultural technologies, people are able to bring ingredients that are not seasonal to the table of the public. There is a steady supply of fresh produce in the supermarkets all year round, making almost all the ingredients available in the market anytime. In the past, people had to store the vegetable in cellars, or make them into pickles to be saved for winter times. Nowadays, people are less and less dependent on such ways as storage. However, the pickled vegetables in some areas remain popular for the transforming flavors they bring to dishes. On the surface, the increased access to fresh produce has benefited people, but it has also led to the reduced quality of these products. The strawberries grown in glasshouses may look uniformly big, colorful and inviting, but many tastes bland and not “flavorful” compared to the not so good-looking ones growing following the seasonal orders. It has been the same for other fruits, vegetables, poultry, etc. Such a phenomenon has raise the attention of agricultural experts, in the development of organic produce as the return of agriculture to its natural state (Yin, et al, 1362).

4. Western Influences

The force of globalization has always played an important role in shaping Chinese food. Such influences were subtler in the ancient times, through the gradual introduction of produce plants and a gradual popularization of the on the agricultural level. The influence would only reach and change Chinese food years later. In comparison, the rapid globalization has brought more dramatic and direct changes to Chinese food. In the past, Chinese people regarded ingredients such as bird nests, bear paws and shark fins as the food for the royalty. Influences of the modern western values have changed the mind of many of the Chinese people, especially the younger generations, leading to a reduction in the consumption of these food. The Chinese food that are the most popular in China has also gained interest and popularity in the foreign countries. However, modifications in flavor, methods of cooking and ingredients used are observed in the newly created Chinese food overseas. Many of the popular Chinese food in the US, such are fried noodles and sweet and sour pork, are actually very different from the Chinese counterparts. The influences of food from different cultures are mutual and multi-directional. Food such as pizza, bread, cakes are also gaining popularity in China. Similar to the case of fried noodles, most of the pizzas in China are nothing like the Italian ones, which is the combination of Italian tradition and Chinese favored flavors.

Along with the standardizing of Chinese agriculture, the Chinese food and beverage industries are also facing the same transforms in the western ways. Mimicking the business mode of western fast food chains, local fast food brands have been developed in recent years. However, these restaurants often fail to capture the essence of Chinese food flavor and focus on creating the convenient, modern dining experience. It is worrying to see in many cities the fall of old restaurants. Many Chinese comfort food dinners, ones that help bring back childhood flavors of many Chinese, are no longer able to survive the competition of the modern and well-decorate restaurants. However, it is these small restaurants that represent the Chinese food culture. More emphasize on flavor over environment has become increasingly popular in China in recent years, which is helpful in maintaining the valuable flavors. To counter the fact that people of modern society have grown farther away from nature and agriculture, which are crucial for their daily lives, many “picking gardens” have emerged in Chinese cities. People only need to pay a ticket price to experience the vegetable and fruit picking in these gardens, making them popular destinations especially for families with children. Such gardens reflect the efforts made by the Chinese to reconnect with nature and agriculture, and be able to appreciate the hard work required in obtaining their daily food.

5. Conclusion

The evaluation of the human diet, at discussed in the beginning of the paper, is not only a problem of the present and future, but also closed related with the past. Efforts made in archaeology have revealed the transition of human diet from the hunting thousands of years ago, to the agriculture-dependent diet nowadays. Today, the highly-industrialized food industry is becoming even more influential than agriculture. However, humans are not genetically adapted for such kind of diets, which leads to obesity and other health problems. as hunters, ancient humans consume over 100 types of fruits and vegetables per year, with a daily intake of high-fiber ingredients over 100 grams, which is times of the amount people consume today (Challem, 7). Looking back to the ancient diet, it is hard to say that any major food culture in the world, Chinese food included, is the optimal and healthy choice. The history of the development of Chinese food has indicated that agriculture and food are directly related. Diversification of agriculture results in a more diversified diet. Although development of the modern technology and pursuit for production have hindered such diversifications, there are also forces trying to bring back the close relationship between humans, food and agriculture, with the introduction of organic agriculture and picking gardens. To further promote public health in the future, the importance of agriculture should be emphasized, while the influence of processed food industry minimized. Furthermore, diversification should only be based on the integrity of traditional flavors and not affected by western influences, so that the essence of Chinese food can be inherited by future generations and maintain a valuable part of the mankind’s food culture.

6. References

Challem, J. Paleolithic Nutrition: Your Future is in Your Dietary Past, Nutrition Science News, April, 1997

Hsu, Cho-yun, and Jack L. Dull. “Han Agriculture: The Formation of Early Chinese Agrarian Economy, 206 B.C.-A.D. 220.” vol. v. 2., University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1980.

Huang, Yao, et al. "Net Primary Production of Chinese Croplands from 1950 to 1999." Ecological Applications, vol. 17, no. 3, 2007, pp. 692-701, doi:10.1890/05-1792.

Oh, S. -., and N. C. Whitley. "Pork Production in China, Japan and South Korea." Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, vol. 24, no. 11, 2011, pp. 1629-1636, doi:10.5713/ajas.2011.11155.

Shurtleff, William, & Aoyagi, Akiko. “History of Edamame, Green Vegetable Soybeans, and Vegetable-Type Soybeans” SOYINFO Center, 2009.

Wang, Wei-Ming, et al. "Exploration of Early Rice Farming in China." Quaternary International, vol. 227, no. 1, 2010, pp. 22-28, doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2010.06.007.

Wumuer, Wusiman, et al. "Trade Issue Over Agriculture Products between China and Countries Along the Silk Road Economic Belt: Features and Status." Agricultural Science & Technology, vol. 16, no. 12, 2015, pp. 2886.

Yin, Shijiu, et al. "Consumers' Purchase Intention of Organic Food in China." Journal of the science of food and agriculture, vol. 90, no. 8, 2010, pp. 1361-1367, doi:10.1002/jsfa.3936.

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