英国论文代写平台整理出的 research paper范文：“Malard制造公司运营模式分析”，本文主要内容是不同类型的组织结构被广泛应用于世界上的许多公司。不同的公司有不同的组织结构,这个主要取决于企业的规模、类型的产品和行业,组织结构是指如何进行分工,组织和协调与合作工作任务。在不同部门间的冲突和分歧的问会影响新产品的发展,本文分析了组织与组织结构相关的问题,我们列出了Malard制造公司的组织结构并提出了解决这些问题的方法。
Different types of organizational Structure are widely applied in many companies around the world. Different companies almost have different types of organizational Structure which mainly depends on the size of the enterprise, the types of products and the industry of the enterprise. Organizational Structure is to point to how to carry on the division of labor, group and coordination and cooperation for the work task. In terms to the problems of interdepartmental conflict and disagreement which causes by the introduction of new products, this article analyses the organizational issue relevant to the organizational structure , Malard manufacturing company’s organizational Structure and put forward the ways to solve these problems.
Malard manufacturing company produces control valves that regulate flows through natural gas pipeline. Mallard has approximately 1400 employees and has successfully produced a standard line of control valves that are price competitive in the industry. With the development of product and market, the company needs to introduce a lot of new products every year or two. However, the introduction of new products brings about the problems of interdepartmental conflict and disagreement. So we must identify the organizational issue relevant to the organizational structure and analysis the problem and suggested potential solutions.
The current organizational structure of Malard Manufacturing is functional structure . We can take the CV305 for example, the research and development group developed the basic design, and the engineering department converted it into a prototype control valve. Now the materials department must acquire parts for the prototype and make plans for obtaining parts needed for production runs. The production department is to manufacture and assemble the product, and Marketing is responsible for sales.
From the case, we can know that the introduction of new products brings about the problems of interdepartmental conflict and disagreement. Each department only considers their own benefit instead of from the whole company point of view which caused conflict of interest within the company. From below we can know the interdepartmental conflict and disagreement. Department heads think the work of the CV305 should be done simultaneously instead of sequentially. Marketing department wants to provide input to research and development to meet customer needs. Production department believes that the design will meet customer needs, the design fit machine limitations and it is cost-efficient to manufacture. Therefore, Production department wants to speed up development of the final plans so that it can acquire tooling and be ready for standard production. However, engineering department wants to slow down development to ensure that specifications are correct and have been thoroughly tested.
It is necessary to maintain a balance between vertical and horizontal structure in the company. Under the vertical structure, the subordinate section only accept a higher authority’s instruction, the relevant person in charge of the unit is responsible for everything and it has clear responsibility and unified command. Under the horizontal structure, departments can communicate, coordinate with each other, make their respective advantages complementary to each other and improve efficiency. Maintaining a balance between vertical and horizontal structure in the company is very important, because only by it can the company gain advantages between vertical and horizontal structure .
It is not appropriate that department managers always turn to the EVP for help rather than to one another. Department managers can firstly turn to another department manager for help, because different department managers have their own advantages including experience, technology, knowledge and professional and if they discuss with each other, they can achieve it.
The current organizational structure of Malard Manufacturing is functional structure and we all know that it faced many problems of interdepartmental conflict and disagreement. So we must change the type of the current organizational structure in order to solve these problems. We can carry out the matrix structure to adapt to the current situation. In the organizational structure, not only includes the vertical leadership system according to the functional division, but also the lateral leadership relationship structure according to the products division, which is known as the matrix organizational structure.
Its characteristic is performance in the established cross-functional departments of the specialized agencies around a specialized task, for example, it can form a special products team to be engaged in new product development work in research, design, testing, manufacturing in different stages. Because the relevant departments send someone to do integration, it can coordinate the activities of the relevant departments and ensure the completion of the task. Although this kind of organization structure form is fixed, personnel can change and when the task is done, personnel can leave. The project team and the person in charge are temporary organizations and appointed. The task is done, the person is dissolved and the relevant personnel go to the original work. Therefore, the organizational structure is very suitable for horizontal cooperation and research project.
Matrix structure applies to some major research projects. Enterprise can be used to complete covers a wide range, temporary and complicated major project or task management reform. Especially, it is suitable for the unit of mainly development and experiment, such as scientific research, especially applied research unit, etc. therefore, Matrix structure applies to the CV305 and A project manager with responsibility for coordinating the CV305.
Span of control is the number of employees a manager can efficiently manage. Contingency variables: level in the organization; the training and experience employees have; similarity of employee tasks, the task complexity, the physical proximity of employees, the degree of standardization, the sophistication of the organization’s management information system, the strength of the organization’s value system, the preferred managing style of the manager, etc. A supervisor can effectively guide how many subordinates? The relevant control span is very important, because in the very great degree, it decides how much to set up the organization level, equipped with how many management personnel. In other conditions phase at the same time, the wide span of control, the organization efficiency is higher; it can be given an example.
However, a wide span of control also has its disadvantages, such as it often appears on a layer of personnel is difficult to control the subordinate personnel activity situation and it is difficult to coordinate the subordinate personnel. So may be we can develop a smaller span of control to adapt to the current situation.
Through the above research, the organizational issue Malard manufacturing company is relevant to the organizational structure and the problems of interdepartmental conflict and disagreement which causes by the introduction of new products is greatly because of organizational structure. We can learn that Malard manufacturing company’s organizational structure is functional structure. Then by the analysis of the organizational structure, the causes and symptoms of the organizational problem and finally put forward the ways to solve these problems: maintain a balance between vertical and horizontal structure; to communicate between departments; Change the type of the current organizational structure; A smaller span of control.
One is to adjust to the global economy after the financial crisis, the international financial order is changing, trade protectionism, the international capital flow speed slow down, the economy will face a long low growth, all countries pay more attention to the balanced development of inside and outside, seeking new competitive advantage through structural adjustment.And the our country economy to recover and maintained a high growth, foreign trade for a large number of surplus.China's trade surplus to $1, 96.07 billion, 2009, 2010, 1-5 monthly trade surplus of $35.39 billion.Therefore, Chinese manufacturing exports is easy to become the main target of the global trade protectionism.
Second, as more and more developing countries into the economic globalization, participate in the international division of labor, part of the industry in China and developing countries industry homogeneity strong trend, competition to expand.Advantage the original labor-intensive industry in China is facing the challenge from these countries, some relative in decreasing industry competitiveness, on these products exports, competition and trade frictions with some developing countries are on the rise.Not only that, in the wake of the financial crisis, the developed country, put forward to revive manufacturing also says some countries to expand exports to reduce domestic trade deficit, which makes our country faced with direct competition from developed countries, high-end products in the most typical case is on September 16, 2010, the commission again to our country to launch anti-subsidy investigations data card, involving about 4.1 billion dollars.
Three is China's foreign trade export growth has not been fundamentally get rid of the increase in the number, scale expansion and the extensive mode of growth, export quality, structure and benefits are to be further improved.This is mainly embodied in: the low level of export products;The independent brand products exports less;Export prices is not high, the terms of trade has a tendency to deteriorate.At present, China's foreign trade growth pattern mainly relying on price competition and quantitative expansion, and seriously affect China's trade structure optimization.A comparative advantage in China mainly export industry: textiles, footwear, leather and other labor-intensive industries, in the international division of labor in the most low-end industry chain.Although in recent years, China's exports of mechanical and electrical and hi-tech products export accounts for larger proportion, but is still a low value-added links, high-tech products are mainly derived from the processing trade.
Four is our country's trade structure imbalance, is not reasonable.For a long time, China's trade in goods, trade in services and technology trade three parts can't synchronous development, foreign trade is still mainly rely on trade in goods.Although China's service trade to get fast development in recent years, in 2005-2009, trade in services from?1 $57.1 billion increase to 2 $86.8 billion, increased by about 1.8 times, the average annual growth of 16.2%.Of China's service export world rankings from eighth in 2005 to fifth in 2009.However, China's service trade in general is still lags behind that of trade in goods and services exports accounted for the proportion of total exports of foreign trade maintained at about 9%, below the global average.And technology trade development is lagging behind in our country, especially the technology export accounts for the proportion of foreign trade in our country is very low, in the case of licensing the technology export trade way, exclusive rights to use fee and royalty export only $2009 in 400 million, accounting for 0.3% of trade in services exports;Compared with other countries in 2007, the exclusive rights fee and royalty exports, the us $28.61 billion, $23.22 billion in Japan, the UK for $15.13 billion, and China is only $340 million, the data is according to the ministry of commerce service trade department website data.With the country's development in the technology export, there is a big gap with our highly consistent trading powers.
60-70 s of the 20th century, the global scope of important changes in industrial structure, the industrial structure of center of gravity to information and knowledge industry such as the so-called 'fourth industry' the phenomenon of migration.Corresponding to this, the labor and capital intensive industry of developed countries by information, knowledge and technology intensive industries gradually replaced, the manufacturing output value and employment proportion declining, the proportion of service industry in the national economy and share increasing, present industrial structure of high technology, integration, internationalization and the characteristics of the service.In America, for example, America's manufacturing output is falling and its share of GDP fell from 40% after the second world war in 2002 to 13.9%, from a peak of 35% of the total employment fell to about 10% in 2005.Because of its multinational company will be technology and its production process subcontract or even completely out of production, the phenomenon of 'virtual manufacturing', such as Nike all except the most key air cushion system is provided by external, adidas has to transfer 95% of its manufacturing to other countries, specifically to ge by manufacturing company into a diversified services company.According to the ministry of commerce statistics, about 2, 500 U.S. companies to transfer production and technology overseas.In this revolution, especially the foreign direct investment from multinational companies in the developed countries and with the transfer of technology to promote the global industrial structure transformation.
In the late 1980 s, sustained and rapid economic development in Japan, under the background of the sharp rise in the yen, accompanied by a large number of technology transfer, Japan's foreign direct investment in the unprecedented rapid development.In 1990, the Japanese foreign direct investment reached $50.5 billion, accounting for 21.6% of the total amount of foreign direct investment in the world.Japan presents diversity, the purpose of the foreign direct investment, for example, to expand foreign trade, establish international production and sales network, access to or use of the host country of cheap resources and factors of production, exports to a third country and back to Japan.International production network become a new important investment purposes.Japan in order to adapt to the needs of the industrial structure adjustment, the production of low value-added products and labor-intensive industry, resource consumption and technology transfer to other countries, especially developing countries, in the domestic focus on high value-added products, high-tech products production and research and development, the realization of ultimate interest of Japan's international division of labor system .
Since the 70-80 s of the 20th century, the developed countries began to adjust the trade structure, generally attaches great importance to the technology transfer and technology products export trade.The basic characteristics of developed countries in trade structure adjustment: one is the technology export speed is accelerated, the second is the technology export high technology exports, including high technology products and high technology services export proportion enhances unceasingly.In the early 1970 s, the structure of export trade of developed countries began to develop in the direction of the technology export.In the mid - 80 - s, with the development of high technology industry, the main developed countries to speed up the pace of the technology export.For example, in 1975, the us technology exports to $43 billion, $1.96 billion in France, Germany $3.08 billion, the $4.93 billion, $2.24 billion in Japan;$65.5 billion by 1985, respectively, the United States, France, us $5.09 billion, $5.04 billion in Germany, the UK $9.68 billion, $9.82 billion in Japan;In 1993, the United States has reached $03.98 billion, $16.5 billion in France, Germany, us $15.6 billion, $36 billion, Japan.Among them, 1975-1985, the main industrial technology exports to developed countries the average growth of 73.1%, and 1985-1993, its technology exports the average growth rate of 206.5% of, until now, the technology of developed countries exports still account for more than 80% of the world technology exports.
Transfer of technology will bring many benefits to the technology transfer party: first, will bring considerable return income, even higher than the normal yield of the assigning party itself.Second, make the assignor can maintain its market share and market competitiveness.Thirdly, through the transfer of technology to expand the business of the enterprise to the imperfect of state and market, because of the diversity and full effect can reduce overall risk.Fourthly, through technology transfer to least-developed countries or regions, can make the assignor can achieve or maintain a higher business increment rate.Fifthly, the assigning party can use the receiver, the country's capital market, which makes the lower cost of funding for some, more diversified channels.
We use the famous 'Gordon growth model', namely the stock evaluation model to explain the benefit from the technology transfer to the enterprise.The company's stock value (P) is equal to the expectations of the stock dividend yield and investors are required to reach (k) and dividend yields, hence the difference between the ratio of complete formula for: P = D?1 / (k - g).Above all about the transfer of technology can bring the following five good: first, help to increase the value of P, the assignor shares of enterprise value, which, in turn, increase the wealth of the shareholder value.After the assignor enterprises obtain good benefits, for example, will be able to pay more dividend, and the business itself also get faster growth.These will help to obtain the higher value of the shares.Second, the technology transfer is essentially a defensive role, can prevent D?1 and g decline in enterprise management, which can stop the decline in the company's stock value P.And third, that is to reduce risk or diversification makes investors to reduce the required to reach the yield of k, it will result in higher stock value of P.Four, namely by adding to the g score increase P values.Fifthly, by reducing the k values to increase P values (due to the diversification of funding sources), or by increasing the stock expected dividend yield D?1 value, to increase the company's stock value P (due to the lower cost of funding).Therefore, when an enterprise found that technology transfer will not do more harm than good, or income is greater than the cost will actively use its mastery of the technology involved in technology transfer to least-developed countries or regions to .
Refers to the technology export from the territory of the People's Republic of China to outside the territory of the People's Republic of China, through trade, investment or economic and technical cooperation way to transfer technology.Including: patent right transfer, patent licensing, proprietary technology transfer, trademark licensing, licensing, computer software license, and technical consulting and technical services, etc.Main trade way: licensing trade, technology consultation and technical service, processing trade, international direct investment and the export of high-tech products and equipment, etc.Among them, the licensing trade is the most basic form of technology trade, mainly around the exclusive right to use and franchising.Different from technology import, technology export in China starts late, from after the reform and opening up began to develop, so to speak.30 years from 1980-1980, our country has experienced from the technology export exploring stage to the stage of rapid development.
Technology export development time is short in our country, the trade structure is not reasonable.In recent years, the high and new technology development of our country has quickly become the main technology export, consulting services have faster growth and sustained rise in the proportion in the technology export.Our licensing trade way, by contrast, proprietary rights and royalties and licensing fees, although have growth, but in the technology export and the proportion of the whole trade in services has changed little.13 years since the 1997-1997, for example, the use of proprietary rights and licensing fees account for the proportion of service trade has 6 years is 0.2%, six years is 0.3%, and 1 year was 0.4%, basically did not improve.Data is according to the ministry of commerce service trade department released statistics calculation.Proprietary rights fee and royalty in 2009, our country exports of $400 million, accounting for 0.3% of the total trade in services exports;Imported 11.1 billion us dollars, accounting for 7% of the trade in services imports, deficit of $10.7 billion, become the second to the transportation service trade deficit.