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英国paper代写-The concepts and classifications of depression

2017-06-16 | 来源:51due教员组 | 类别:Paper代写范文

本篇英国paper代写-The concepts and classifications of depression回顾了抑郁症的概念和分类,并介绍抑郁症的病史和治疗方法。流行病学资料显示,忧郁症患病率,复发率和自杀率高,但治愈率低。抑郁症严重打扰了病人的生命和工作,给家庭和社会造成了很大的负担。约有15%的抑郁症患者自杀,这使得抑郁症引起了每个国家的高度关注。本篇英国paper代写由51due英国论文代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。


This paper is going to review the concepts and classifications of depression and introduce the history and the therapeutic methods of depression. The epidemiological data shows that the melancholia has a high rate in prevalence, recurrence and suicide, but it has a low cure rate. Depression seriously bothers the patient’s life and work and it has caused great burden to the family and society. About 15% of patients with depression died of suicide, which makes depression, attract much attention of every country. what’s worse, a study made by WHO, the world bank and Harvard University, has indicated that depression has become the second disease burden of the disease in China (Aaron T. Beck.,M D & Brian F. Shaw & Rush A. John. 1987.). Therefore, to treat depression is really a significant and urgent issue nowadays.

The Concepts Of Depression

Every clinical research needs to be based on rigorous concepts and classification criteria. The follow two paragraphs are dedicated to the studies on the concepts and classifications of depression and to use history as a mirror—avoid going astray by reviewing the past. The purpose is to provide help for better research on depression. In fact, depression has been discussed by people since many years ago. The earliest research on it can be traced back to from BC. Since BC, western medicine had many descriptions and records of what we now call "depression". In 400 years, BC Hippocrates, used the term "melancholia" to describe such symptoms. And he was the first person who thought that depression is caused by the "black bile" and "mucus", which had an effect on brain function. From then on, the term “depression” has been used for many years. In the twelfth century, Moses Maimonides, a Jewish doctor, said that "depression" is an independent disease. After the middle of the nineteenth Century, the clinical observations and scientific researches on depression was gradually expanded. In 1854, a French psychiatric expert, Jades Bail Larger, described some cases which appeared as deep depression and fell into a stupor state, and he named them as classic "depressive stupor". Almost at the same time, another French doctor Jules Falter described a group of clinical phenomenon which appeared as the alternation performance of depression and mania. The phenomenon was known as "circular disorder". In 1882, Kahibaum first proposed that mania and depression are two different stages of the same disease, and he called the disease as “cyclothymiacs”. In 1896, Kraepelin, used the concept “manic-depressive insanity” to summarize this kind of obstacle. In 1899, Kraepelin described the “involution melancholia”, which occurred to postmenopausal women or men. This concept is gradually expanding and is considered as a form of late onset depression. In 1951, Bleuler used the term “emotional mental illness” and then it covers a wider range and becomes more applicable. It has been in use till now. The current concepts of depression are as follows: depression or depressive disorder is caused by a variety of reasons. It is a group of mood disorder or affective disorder with depression as the main symptom. It is a group of clinical symptoms or status with depression and self-experience as the center. In medicine, depression at least has three different meanings (Li L jiang. 2003): (1) is a state of mind, a kind of mood, a kind of emotional state; (2) is a symptom of depression; (3) is the depression itself.

The Classifications Of Depression

The classifications of depression are different according to the time, the author and the angle of research. The comparative scientific classifications of it are summarized as follows. From the perspective of whether depression is a disease or a reaction type, it can be divided into: endogenous depression and exogenous depression ( Cai, 2001). Kraepelin, a famous German psychiatrist, born in 1855,was the first person who made a classification of mental disorders. He believed that depression was a disease, which had its etiology, course of disease and outcome. For depression was a disease, he suggested that the main treatment of it should be physical therapy. However, an American psychiatrist, Adolph Meyer, born in 1866, held a different point of view. He believed that clinical depression was not a disease, but a sustained development of normal emotions. In his opinion, when a person's emotions interfere with the function of the body, it was known as “the neurotic depression”. When the depression is likely to continue for a long period of time and the body function is further limited, and may have delusions, hallucinations and suicide attempts, it was referred to as psychotic depression. This view was called the continual hypothesis of depression or the idea of Meyer School on depression. According to this point of view, depression was mainly a reaction type, and the cause was about psychology. There was a psychological problem at first, then a reaction, and finally the results of the physiological aspects. It was usually recommended to use psychotherapy. In 1970, Robins (Cai,2001) proposed the classification of “the primary and secondary depression’, based on the biological genetics. This classification can avoid the differences between the concepts of reactive or endogenous, might or severe depression, and the speculation of the causal relationship of them. Thus this classification had practical value for clinical workers. Primary depression refers to the depression without other mental illness and the clinical diseases before the onset. Secondary depression means that the patients suffer from other psychiatric or clinical subjects diseases at the beginning. Then in the occurrence and development of these diseases, they suffer from depression state and the depressive syndrome. After entering the 1980s, the most representative classification system of modern mental disease classification has a more rational division of mental illness. As the current diagnosis of depression still lacks the basis for accurate objective indicators, these classifications are still based on the symptoms of indicators. The classifications learn from each other and seek common ground while reserving differences between them. But from the perspective of the specific content of classifications, it can still reflect the academic ideas of different countries and schools. To understanding and mastering these theories is of great benefit in understanding the concept of depression and clinical classification comprehensively. From the review of the history of classifications of depression, people can make a deeper understanding of the nature of depression. And this paper hopes to provide some inspiration from different angles and levels, for the study of depression.

The upcoming sections in this paper are going to introduce three methods for the treatment of depression.

1.The Electric Shock Therapy

The electric shock therapy will be shortened as “ECT” in the following content). The so-called ECT is to use electricity to make the patient seize under anesthesia (James, 2016). The result is that the release of chemicals in the brain can improve the link between brain cells, but also can produce some other changes. So it can relieve depression. Many doctors believe that ECT not only has a therapeutic effect on depression, and may even lead to brain damage. But Geddes John, who is from the University of Oxford, points out that, according to a series of medical literature review tips, in fact, this treatment can really work, and at the same time, the side effects of it can be controlled. Geddes told the reporter of Reuters that: “ the most convincing evidence of any other treatment method is that if I or my relatives are in the same situation, whether I would choose this treatment method. According to a series of evidence, I think the answer to the above question is yes." In 2003, the British researchers of Reuters announced that although electroconvulsive therapy has been in a controversial discussion, this treatment can be effective treatment of mental illness, and the therapeutic effect on depression patients is superior to antidepressant medication (Ronald, 2003).

2.The Balance of SX Gene Therapy

The balance of SX gene therapy is produced by the psychiatry department of Han and Tang Hospital, which is an affiliated hospital of the Institute of Chinese medicine in Shaanxi Province. After many years of clinical experience and through the introduction of large new medical equipment , they eventually develops a scientific treatment method of depression. It breaks the vicious circle of "treatment- recurrence-retreatment-recurrence again " in the treatment of depression. In addition to, the detailed effects of this method are as follows: Use biological therapy to repair genes; Activate the cells to improve circulation; Regulate activity to enhance memory; Clear toxins to improve immunity. It is regarded as a green therapy, for it can not only suppress the symptom but also treat the condition.

3.The Psychological Therapy

The psychological therapy mainly consists of two types: the cognitive behavior therapy and interpersonal therapy. Cognitive behavior therapy  (Li, 2003; Aaron T. Beck.,M D & Brian F. Shaw & Rush A. John,1987.) is the most applied and studied psychotherapy in the treatment of depression, and interpersonal therapy is the most popular depression psychotherapy in recent years. These two treatments have been proved to be able to effectively alleviate the symptoms of depression in acute phase. What’s more, the combination of these two treatments can be used to treat chronic depressive symptoms, and the combination with drug treatment can make the effective rate from 48% to 73%. The psychological therapy is suitable for the treatment of mild and moderate depression, and the consolidation and maintenance of various types of depression after acute period of symptoms. It is especially suitable for the patients with obvious psychological and social factors. During the process of the treatment, the psychotherapy patients must have certain ability to comprehend and be able to persevere. In a certain extent, they should be able to endure the pain symptoms in the course of treatment, but in fact, it’s not suitable for everybody. However, if the patient can persist, his mental health and social adaptation ability will increase, and effectively prevent the depression relapse recurrence.

The above are the introduction of the three therapeutic methods of depression. It is no doubt that there are many other therapeutic methods of depression at present, and it is believed that there will be more and more therapeutic methods of it. However, as the saying goes: it’s the best that fits you. So the patients are supposed to choose the therapeutic method based on their actual condition. It’ extremely important for a patient to make a reasonable choice of treatment, please remember not to blindly choose.

The prospect of psychotherapy for depression will be optimistic, and the treatments will be further developed. At the same time, evidence-based medicine is also needed to be penetrated into the field of psychotherapy. But it may also bring a dilemma. On the one hand, the psychological treatment is going to change in a direction of the cheaper and more popular, it will need less therapists who have professional training. On the other hand, the quality of treatment is assured. There will be a gap between researches and applications. No matter how depression develops in the future, the results must be better and better for the treatments of it. So the burden caused by depression of the society will be less. 

Reference

Ronald W. Reagan. 2003. Health New York News. New York: Reuters. 

Li L jiang. 2003. Psychiatry [M]. Beijing: Higher Education Press. 

Cai Z ji. 2001. Depression - Basic and Clinical [M]. (the Second Edition). Beijing: Science and Technology Press.

Aaron T. Beck, Brad A. Alford. 2014. Depression (the Second Edition). California: Guilford Publications

Aaron T. Beck.,M D & Brian F. Shaw & Rush A. John. 1987. Cognitive Therapy of Depression. California: Guilford Publications

James S. Gordon. 2016. A Non Drug Therapy for Depression. Chongqing: Chongqing University press.


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